Advances in Educational Research and Evaluation 2021-07-16T11:43:32+08:00 Snowy Wang Open Journal Systems <p><a title="Registered Journal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/journal/public/site/images/jasongong/Logo_ReviewerCredits-journal.jpg" alt="" width="17%" align="right"></a><strong>Advances in Educational Research and Evaluation</strong> (<strong>AERE</strong>) <strong>(ISSN: 2661-4693)</strong>, an international open access journal, publishes original, peer-reviewed academic articles dealing with research on educational issues of mathematics, psychology, sociology, history, philosophy, political science, economics, computer science, statistics, anthropology, medicine, etc. The aim of the journal is to increase understanding of learning in pre-primary, primary, high school, college, university and adult education, and to contribute to the improvement of educational processes and outcomes. The journal seeks to promote cross-national and international comparative educational research by publishing findings relevant to the scholarly community, as well as to practitioners and others interested in education.</p> <p>The columns of the journal include, but not limited to: <br>--Case studies <br>--Experiments and surveys <br>--Discussions of conceptual and methodological issues <br>--Underlying assumptions in educational research <br>--Accounts of research in progress<br>--Book reviews</p> Teachers’ self-efficacy: Associations with teacher and student characteristics and effects of the anger management intervention, the Mini-Diamond 2021-07-16T11:43:32+08:00 Janni Niclasen Thea Toft Amholt Rhonwyn Carter Jesper Dammeyer <p>Teacher self-efficacy (TSE) is the term used for teachers’ beliefs about their capacity to positively influence students’ learning and social environment. How TSE influences incidences of teacher burnout and student academic achievement has been the focus of previous research. Studies investigating the associations between TSE and socio-demographic characteristics are sparse, and little is known about the possible effects of school-based interventions on TSE. In order to address these areas of research, the aims of this study were twofold. First, the study examined associations between TSE and a) teachers’ socio-demographic characteristics, and b) student’s school-related well-being. Secondly, we investigated the effect of a school-based angermanagement intervention, the Mini-Diamond, on TSE. Students from grades 0 to 2 and their teachers, from all schools in two Danish municipalities, participated in the study. Teachers completed two questionnaires, including the Danish version of the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale and a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics. All students filled out a school well-being questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed prior to and after the intervention. Positive associations were found between TSE and teachers’ age, showing that the older the teacher, the higher the TSE. Furthermore, positive associations between TSE and years of experience, as well as TSE and students’ school connectedness, were found. No effects were found of the school intervention on TSE.</p> 2021-07-16T11:43:32+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An investigation into barriers to student engagement in Higher Education: Evidence supporting 'the psychosocial and academic trust alienation theory’ 2021-06-09T11:37:11+08:00 Caroline Sarah Jones <p>The purpose of this research was to examine the new concept of, ‘psychosocial and academic trust alienation theory’; the potential influence of self-concept, self-esteem and trust as barriers to student engagement. The study was conducted in a Higher Education University campus located within a 16-19 year old Further Education Institution.A constructivist epistemology, underpinned by symbolic interaction theory utilising a mixed methods approach formed the research design. The sample population were students enrolled at the participating institution and employed teaching staff. Quantitative surveys were completed by 39 students, supported by two qualitative staff focus groups and one qualitative student case study to examine an outlier result. Findings suggest 87% of the student participant sample aligned with the ‘psychosocial and academic trust alienation theory’. Barriers to student engagement were; specific classroom and assessment activities, relationships with teaching staff and peers, staff absences and staff turnover, all having a significant impact on students’ psychosocial and academic trust. The contribution of this research to the field of Higher Education is three-fold; firstly, findings support the ‘psychosocial and academic trust alienation theory’, secondly it provides insights into the psychological barriers to engagement for the Widening Participation student demographic, thirdly it proposes practical strategies for supporting Widening Participation students in Higher Education. Recommendations for practice include i) counselling, coaching and mentoring support from teaching staff, ii) initiatives to reduce staff turnover and sickness, iii) social pedagogical teaching approaches, iv) teacher training, and, v) peer based learning opportunities to cultivate communities of practice. These strategies could strengthen Widening Participation student’s psychosocial and academic trust, thus reducing barriers to student engagement in Higher Education, contributing to increased social mobility success rates in the United Kingdom and beyond.</p> 2021-06-09T11:29:35+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quality culture in action for a respiratory course: A dynamic CQI process at an engineering based allopathic medical school 2021-06-03T11:29:40+08:00 Lidija Barbaric Bailey MacInnis Kashif A. Ahmad <p>Carle Illinois College of Medicine (CIMED) opened its doors in 2018 as an allopathic medical school under provisional accreditation by the Liaison Committee of Medical Education (LCME) and in 2014, the LCME mandated that all U.S. medical schools implement the process of internal continuous quality improvement (CQI). Here, the authors take a retrospective look at how CIMED utilized frequent and granular student feedback to contribute to continuous quality improvement (CQI) during the school’s Respiratory course, by citing specific examples of changes and student satisfaction outcomes from the inaugural class (2018) to the second class (2019). The authors outline how this cycle of evaluation and action can effectively incorporate students into the CQI process to enhance student success via faculty-student partnership. Furthermore, the authors discuss the nuance of feedback interpretation by the involved faculty and advocate for CQI based on a deeper understanding of the student experience such that change initiated by CQI may extend beyond benchmark data collection. The authors discuss how dynamic feedback may be helpful in achieving equipoise between long-standing principles of medical pedagogy and newer trends in medical education, while still maintaining student satisfaction and continuing to develop a culture of quality improvement.</p> 2021-06-03T11:28:47+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Holding teachers accountable: An old-fashioned, dry, and boring perspective 2021-04-25T15:14:18+08:00 David Trafimow <p>Few would disagree with the desirability to hold teachers accountable, but student evaluations of teaching and department head evaluations of teaching fail to do the job validly. Although this may be due, in part, to difficulties conceptualizing teaching effectiveness and student learning, it also is due to insufficient attention to measurement reliability. Measurement reliability sets an upper bound on measurement validity, thereby guaranteeing that unreliable measures of teaching effectiveness are invalid too. In turn, for measures of teaching effectiveness to be reliable, the items in the measure must correlate well with each other, there must be many items, or both. Unfortunately, at most universities, those who are tasked with teaching assessment do not understand the basics of psychometrics, thereby rendering their assessments of teachers invalid. To ameliorate unsatisfactory assessment procedures, the present article addresses the relationship between reliability and validity, some requirements of reliable and valid measures, and the psychometric implications for current teaching assessment practices.</p> 2021-04-25T15:14:18+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Is the Three Character Classic (《三字经》) still suitable for contemporary literacy and enlightenment education for children? Insights from the perspective of cognitive psychology and child development psychology 2021-03-25T14:30:32+08:00 Yi Sun Guoqing Zhao Xi Yang <p>The <em>Three Character Classic</em> (《三字经》), also translated as <em>San Zi Jing</em> or <em>The Triword Primer</em>, is the traditional Chinese Primer with the most significant influence and the broadest appeal. In the 21st century Chinese traditional cultural revival, traditional texts such as the <em>Three Character Classic</em> are reused as child education primer. Is the <em>Three Character Classic</em> still suitable for contemporary children's literacy and enlightenment? From the perspective of cognitive psychology and child development psychology, this paper used a critical literature review method to investigate the relationship between the <em>Three Character Classic </em>and children's language development, attention, memory, cognition, and moral development. It found that the content, structure, teaching approach of it conform to children's physical and cognitive development during early childhood. The <em>Three Character Classic</em> is not only the primary text for children's Chinese learning but also a valuable tool to understand the spiritual core of traditional Chinese culture. It has a particular value for children's literacy and enlightenment and those who learn Chinese as a second language.</p> 2021-03-25T11:48:57+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluating a universal emotional-centred intervention to improve children's emotional well-being over primary-secondary school transition 2021-03-12T22:51:48+08:00 Charlotte Louise Bagnall Claire Louise Fox Yvonne Skipper Jeremy Oldfield <p>The transition from primary to secondary school is a critical period for children, which, for most children involves stress and anxiety (Jindal-Snape et al., 2020). If negotiated poorly, this transition can have a significant negative impact on children’s short- and long-term well-being and mental health (White, 2020). Despite this, efforts to improve children’s emotional experiences of primary-secondary school transition are minimal in research and face challenges in practice. Very few interventions focus on supporting children’s emotional well-being and these are limited in number, sustainability, and reach. Talking about School Transition (TaST) is a universal, emotional-centred teacher-led support intervention, which was developed to fill this gap in the literature. The evaluation of TaST consisted of a longitudinal questionnaire-based design investigating the efficacy of TaST in improving 143 Year 6 (aged 10 and 11 year old) children’s coping efficacy and adjustment. It was assessed using the outcome variables: Emotional Symptoms, Peer Problems, Coping Efficacy and Transition Worries, in addition to a qualitative process evaluation. Results suggest that TaST had immediate positive implications for participating children who showed a significantly greater reduction in Transition Worries once at secondary school, compared to control group children. TaST has implications for educational practice and policy in elucidating the importance of supporting children’s emotional well-being over this period and demonstrating the viability and success of implementing emotional-centred support intervention in practice.</p> 2021-03-09T15:19:01+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Student learning styles: Implications for interprofessional education program design 2021-02-07T17:39:31+08:00 Todd Michael Tedrow Jennifer Anderson <p>This cross-sectional, exploratory, quantitative research project investigated differences in students’ learning styles across multiple academic disciplines. The Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scales (GRSLSS) was selected which presents six learning styles: independent, avoidant, collaborative, dependent, competitive, and participant. Surveys were administered to students (N = 448) registered in professional preparatory programs (n = 6) at a Midwest regional commuter-based campus. Results support the need for interprofessional education initiatives to be developed from a student-centered perspective where the attributes of learners are interwoven – explicitly and implicitly, into the learning experience.</p> 2020-12-07T18:11:12+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The improbable challenge of managing students’ challenging behaviors in schools: Professional reflections from a 30 year career 2021-02-07T17:40:51+08:00 John W. Maag <p>Managing students’ challenging behaviors is one of the most difficult tasks teachers face.&nbsp; Many teachers, during their training, were never required to take a class in behavior management.&nbsp; Consequently, it does not come naturally for teachers to manage students’ challenging behaviors and will be rarely be effectively addressed for two reasons: (1) certain teacher characteristics regarding behavior management and (2) some dimensions of school culture.&nbsp; The philosophical linchpin is not an inability of teachers to <em>learn</em> effective behavior management techniques, but rather what they <em>believe</em>about the process.&nbsp; This article addresses teacher and school variables and offers alternative ideas about managing students’ behaviors more effectively.</p> 2020-09-03T05:21:04+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Our intellectual children: Kuhnian Ants or Feyerabendian Questioners? 2020-07-01T00:57:37+08:00 David Trafimow <p>The philosophies of Kuhn and Feyerabend not only imply different ways to perform science, they also imply different ways to teach science, particularly at the graduate level. I am especially concerned about teaching at the graduate level in my area of psychology but the argument likely could be generalized outside of psychology. In essence, I argue that teaching graduate level psychology modeled after Feyerabend is better than that modeled after Kuhn.</p> 2020-07-01T00:57:37+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Drivers of school performance over time: Evidence from public schools in the United States 2021-02-07T17:49:12+08:00 Allison Jennifer Ames Simone Angioloni Glenn C. W. Ames <p>Few studies have analyzed the effect of the drivers of school performance over time. This research investigates how school-level student characteristics, such as funding and student-teacher ratio, influence school academic performance in the short-term and in long-term, a key differentiating feature of this work from other studies. Our focus is on the U.S. state of Georgia, but the setting of Georgia is the same as settings throughout the U.S.: considerable variation between schools in achievement and resources. In this study, school performance is defined as the proportion of students that meet or exceed benchmarks on end of year exams. Study findings indicate that teacher experience, measured by average number of years teaching, and student-teacher ratio exhibit the largest effect in both the short and long-term. Poverty rate exhibited a strong negative effect on school performance, confirming previous studies. However, poverty rate had the most impact in the STEM subjects of math and science. School funding did not show any significant effect in school performance in the short-term, but a significant positive effect in the long-term, such that increased school funding per pupil improved school performance in future years. Our results indicate that investing resources to increase the number of teachers and hiring teachers with more experience can be economically more effective than simply increasing the per-pupil spending, at least in the short-term.</p> 2020-06-01T04:01:11+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##