Current Cancer Reports https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR <p><a title="Registered Journal" href="https://www.reviewercredits.com/user/curr-cancer-rep" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="journalreviewercredits" src="/journal/public/site/images/jasongong/Logo_ReviewerCredits-journal.jpg" alt="ReviewerCredits" align="right"></a><strong>Current Cancer Reports (CCR)</strong> (eISSN: 2661-3166) is an open access, continuously published, international, refereed journal dedicated to publish articles covering all areas of carcinogenesis, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, drug development and related policy.</p> <p>The journal aims at promoting research communications, and providing a platform for doctors, researchers, physicians, pharmacists and healthcare professionals to find the most recent advances in all areas of cancer-related fields. Current Cancer Reports accepts original research articles, reviews, minireviews, case reports, image data, novel hypothesis and rapid communication covering all respects of carcinogenesis and cancer therapy.</p> <p>The columns of the journal include, but not limited to: <br>• Original articles and new techniques in cancer research and therapy<br>• Quick reports <br>• Case reports <br>• Clinicopathologic discussion <br>• Discussion of clinical case <br>• Expert views <br>• Exchange of experience <br>• Novel hypothesis <br>• Correspondence <br>• Publish the original incoming letter <br>• Academic contending/Debate <br>• etc.</p> SyncSci Publishing Pte Ltd, Singapore en-US Current Cancer Reports 2661-3166 <p>Authors contributing to&nbsp;<em>Current Cancer Reports</em>&nbsp;agree to publish their articles under the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License</a>, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.</p> Breast carcinoma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Characterization of hormone receptors https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2023.01.006 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and understanding its characteristics is crucial for effective treatment. Therefore, this study aims to investigate breast carcinomas as a function of hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which can contribute to better management of breast cancer cases in the country.<br><strong>Methods</strong><em>:</em> We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study from 2014 to 2016 in the cities of Kinshasa and Lubumbashi. Using non-random sampling, we collected 86 cases of breast carcinoma.<br><strong>Results</strong><em>:</em> The study found that out of the 86 cases of breast carcinoma, 33 patients (38.3%) had both types of hormone receptors (ER+/PgR+), while 37 patients (43.0%) had negative results for both receptor types (ER-/PgR-). Additionally, 15 patients (17.4%) had only estrogen receptors. The study did not find any significant association between the presence of estrogen receptors and patient age, T stage, histological type, and Ki67 proliferation index. However, the study did observe that estrogen receptors were significantly more present in grade I and II tumors (74.4%) than in grade III tumors (40.4%) (Odds ratio=4.3 [1.7-10.8]; p=0.003).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The findings of this study demonstrate a high prevalence of hormone receptors in breast cancer cases in the DRC. Additionally, the study revealed a significant association between the presence of estrogen receptors and tumor grade, underlining the relevance of these markers in the characterization and treatment of the disease.</p> Guy Ilunga Nday Manix Banza Ilunga Anasthasie Umpungu Ngalula Olivier Mukuku Jules Thaba Ngwe Copyright (c) 2024 Guy Ilunga Nday, Manix Banza Ilunga, Anasthasie Umpungu Ngalula, Olivier Mukuku, Jules Thaba Ngwe https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 5 187 192 10.25082/CCR.2023.01.006 Perspectives on chemotherapy-induced toxicities in pancreatic cancer https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2023.01.005 <p>Despite breakthroughs in screening, identification, and therapy, pancreatic cancer (PC) remains a serious issue in cancer-related mortality. This comprehensive review investigates the long-term and latent effects of chemotherapy in PC, focusing on commonly used medicines such as gemcitabine, docetaxel, irinotecan, nab-paclitaxel, and others. Gemcitabine, a common PC medication, causes a variety of adverse effects, including myelosuppression and weariness. Combination therapy, such as docetaxel and irinotecan, enhance toxicity, resulting in problems such as neutropenia and gastrointestinal difficulties. Significantly, chemotherapy-related complications, such as thrombosis and cardiac difficulties connected to paclitaxel, present serious concerns. Erlotinib, gefitinib, vatalanib, and sunitinib studies show significant side effects. Despite ongoing challenges, determining the causes of the low objective response rate in gemcitabine-refractory patients remains challenging. The study emphasizes the importance of future advances in cancer etiology, arguing for large, straightforward studies examining combination chemotherapies to improve tolerance and minimize chemotherapy-induced sequelae. This overview serves as a thorough guide for physicians, researchers, and policymakers as they navigate the complex terrain of PC chemotherapy, providing significant insights to improve patient care.</p> Henu Kumar Verma Tarun Sahu LVKS Bhaskar Copyright (c) 2024 Henu Kumar verma, Tarun Sahu, LVKS Bhaskar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 5 181 186 10.25082/CCR.2023.01.005 Risk of severe immune-related adverse events in cancer patients with pre-existing autoimmunity receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2023.01.004 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate the frequency and severity of irAEs in patients with pre-existing autoimmunity, including irAE-related morbidity and mortality, irAE-related management and resolution, and outcome of ICI rechallenge, to better understand the treatment options for this vulnerablepatient population.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> We designed a retrospective, single-center, case-control study at a large, academic medical center to evaluate the incidence and severity of irAEs in patients with pre-existing autoimmunity compared to controls. Controls were matched 2:1 for age, sex, cancer histology, and ICI class. Patients were identified with ICD 9 and 10 codes followed by manual chart extraction. Cases were defined as patients with pre-existing, systemic autoimmunity. The primary outcome was severe irAE (Grade 3 or higher by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) within 6 months of ICI therapy. Secondary outcomes included response to ICIs, resolution of the irAE, ICI rechallenge success, and survival. Statistical analyses were performed by Chi-square, Fishers exact, Mann-Whitney, and Log-rank tests.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Of 3,130 patients treated with ICIs from 2015-2021, 28 cases with pre-existing autoimmune disease were identified and were matched with 56 controls. Pre-existing autoimmune conditions included antiphospholipid syndrome, inflammatory polyarthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type I diabetes. Multiple cancer histologies, including genitourinary, gynecologic, head &amp; neck, hepatobiliary, lung, melanoma, and pancreatic, were represented. Six of 28 cases (21.4%) experienced severe irAEs compared to 9/56 (16.1%) controls; the odds of developing a severe irAE were not significantly different (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.083-2.33, <em>p&nbsp;</em>= 0.627, ns). Moreover, there were no significant differences in overall survival or tumor response between the two groups. The majority of irAEs resolved without long-term sequelae (66.7% of cases, 55.6% of controls). The majority of patients who were rechallenged with ICIs were successful in continuing therapy (66.7% of cases, 100% of controls).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study suggests that patients with pre-existing autoimmune disease can be treated with ICI cancer therapies and experience rates of severe irAEs and overall survival that are similar to those of the general population. These data can aid oncologists in discussing risks and benefits of ICIs when treating patients with pre-existing autoimmunity and solid tumors.</p> Dayna Jill Isaacs Nikhita Kathuria-Prakash Robin Hilder Melissa G. Lechner Alexandra Drakaki Copyright (c) 2024 Dayna Jill Isaacs, Nikhita Kathuria-Prakash, Robin Hilder, Melissa G. Lechner, Alexandra Drakaki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 5 168 180 10.25082/CCR.2023.01.004 Tumor microenvironment https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2023.01.002 Ping Wang Copyright (c) 2023 Ping Wang http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 5 156 159 10.25082/CCR.2023.01.002 Retrospection and prospect of Current Cancer Reports (CCR) https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2023.01.001 Ying-Yu Cui Copyright (c) 2023 Ying-Yu Cui http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 5 153 155 10.25082/CCR.2023.01.001 Black-White disparities in fatigue and comorbidity among breast cancer survivors https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2022.01.005 Steven S. Coughlin Pratima Bajaj Avirup Guha Copyright (c) 2023 Steven S. Coughlin, Pratima Bajaj, Avirup Guha http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-02-09 2023-02-09 5 150 152 10.25082/CCR.2022.01.005 Epidemiological and histopathological features of ocular tumors in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2022.01.004 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To describe epidemiological and histopathological features of ocular tumors observed in two ophthalmology departments in Bukavu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. <br><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive study and a simple proportion analysis were performed to describe the epidemiological and histopathological characteristics of 103 consecutive anatomical pieces taken after tumor removal from two ophthalmology services in Bukavu city from January 2018 to December 2020. <br><strong>Results</strong>: Children accounted for 40% of patients and ocular tumors were unilateral in 84.5% of cases. The most common locations were the retina (34.8%), conjunctiva (33.7%) and eyelids (22.8%). Benign tumors predominated (51.4%), followed by malignant tumors (37.9%), and undetermined tumors (15.5%). The main histological forms found were retinoblastoma (34.8%), conjunctival nevus (20.6%), and palpebral granuloma (16.3%). <br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Ocular tumors are common in Bukavu. Histopathological examination remains essential to guide management to reduce the risk of recurrence and related complications.</p> Baudoin Budwaga Manwa Dany Biraheka Kabesha Olivier Mukuku Eric Heri Nabuloko Rolande Hadisi Nsimire Philippe Bianga Katchunga Zacharie Kibendelwa Tsongo Stanis Okitotsho Wembonyama Théophile Barhwamire Kabesha Raphaël Bulakali Chirimwami Copyright (c) 2022 Baudoin Budwaga Manwa, Dany Biraheka Kabesha, Olivier Mukuku, Eric Heri Nabuloko, Rolande Hadisi Nsimire, Philippe Bianga Katchunga, Zacharie Kibendelwa Tsongo, Stanis Okitotsho Wembonyama, Théophile Barhwamire Kabesha, Raphaël Bulakali Chirimwami http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 5 144 149 10.25082/CCR.2022.01.004 Women’s breast cancer risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2022.01.003 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. Risk factors for this disease are numerous and their prevalence varies according to racial and ethnic groups and geographical regions. Therefore, we sought to identify BC risk factors in the Congolese population.<br> <strong>Methods</strong>: A case-control study was conducted at the Nganda Hospital Center in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. One hundred and sixty patients with breast cancer (cases) were compared to 320 women who did not have BC (controls). STATA version 16 was used to analyze data with statistical significance considered at p &lt; 0.05.<br> <strong>Results</strong>: There is a strong association between BC in Congolese women and early menarche age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.3), family history of BC (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2-5.5), overweight (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.7), and obesity (aOR = 7.3; 95% CI: 4.0-13.4).<br> <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our results indicate the presence of certain conventional risk factors. Thus, these results will be of great value in establishing adequate evidence-based awareness and preventive measures among the Congolese population.</p> Stanislas Maseb'a Mwang Sulu Olivier Mukuku Arnold Maseb Sul Sulu François Musul Mukeng Bienvenu Lebwaze Massamba Désiré Kulimba Mashinda Stanislas Okitotsho Wembonyama Vicky Lokomba Antoine Tshimpi Wola Copyright (c) 2022 Stanislas Maseb'a Mwang Sulu, Olivier Mukuku, Arnold Maseb Sul Sulu, François Musul Mukeng, Bienvenu Lebwaze Massamba, Désiré Kulimba Mashinda, Stanislas Okitotsho Wembonyama, Vicky Lokomba, Antoine Tshimpi Wola http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 5 139 143 10.25082/CCR.2022.01.003 A case of life threatening acute Nivolumab induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemia https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2022.01.002 <p>Autoimmune haemolytic anemia is a rare but potentially catastrophic adverse event of im-mune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. We present the case of a gentleman who presented with non-specific symptoms while undergoing adjuvant Nivolumab therapy after potential-ly curative surgery for gastroesophageal cancer. The patient’s haemoglobin deteriorated to 4.7 g/dl with no evidence of bleeding and serologic tests indicative of hemolysis. He re-ceived emergent massive RCC transfusion receiving 9 units of bloods in 1 night, and was commenced on high dose methylprednisolone. During subsequent weeks of inpatient care, the patient continued to received multiple daily red cell transfusions and had a total of 53 RCC transfusions during admission, along with high doses of steroids,4 doses of weekly Rituximab as well as 2 doses of IVIG.While he was discharged on day 38 of admission, he required a slow taper of steroids over 6 months. Immune related hemolytic anemias are a rare corollary of immune check point inhibitors. The cases of immune related AIHA docu-mented in the literature were treated with steroids, Rituximab and IVIG, which are also rec-ommended by guidelines for the treatment of immune related haemolytic anemias.</p> Abdul Rehman Farooq Clodagh Keohane Maeve Crowley Laura Whelan Neasa Gallwey Claire Brady Seamus O'Reilly Copyright (c) 2022 Abdul Rehman Farooq, Clodagh Keohane, Maeve Crowley, Laura Whelan, Neasa Gallwey, Claire Brady, Seamus O'Reilly http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 5 133 138 10.25082/CCR.2022.01.002 Breast cancer in women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Current state of knowledge https://www.syncsci.com/journal/CCR/article/view/CCR.2022.01.001 <p>Breast cancer (BC) is a major health problem with an increasing trend in prevalence and mortality worldwide. It is the most common of female cancers in the world, and thus ranks first in both developed and developing countries. Current knowledge on the epidemiology and biological aspects of breast cancer in women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo remains insufficient and poorly documented. Given the trend towards urbanization of the Congolese population, it is likely that current data will change in the coming decades, due to a foreseeable change in risk factors for the disease. Therefore, the establishment of a cancer registry is necessary in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) health system for better epidemiological monitoring of cancer and surveillance data necessary for the development of cancer control policies and their integration into primary health care. Strategies that include building local capacity in terms of human resources, equipment and technology transfer could lead to new concepts and therapies adapted to the Congolese geographical context.</p> Stanislas Maseb-A-Mwang Sulu Olivier Mukuku Stanislas Okitotsho Wembonyama Copyright (c) 2022 Stanislas Maseb-A-Mwang Sulu, Olivier Mukuku, Stanislas Okitotsho Wembonyama http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 5 128 132 10.25082/CCR.2022.01.001