Current Cancer Reports <p><a title="Registered Journal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="journalreviewercredits" src="/journal/public/site/images/jasongong/Logo_ReviewerCredits-journal.jpg" alt="ReviewerCredits" align="right"></a><strong>Current Cancer Reports (CCR)</strong> (ISSN: 2661-3166) is an open access, continuously published, international, refereed journal dedicated to publish articles covering all areas of carcinogenesis, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, drug development and related policy.</p> <p>The journal aims at promoting research communications, and providing a platform for doctors, researchers, physicians, pharmacists and healthcare professionals to find the most recent advances in all areas of cancer-related fields. Current Cancer Reports accepts original research articles, reviews, minireviews, case reports, image data, novel hypothesis and rapid communication covering all respects of carcinogenesis and cancer therapy.</p> <p>The columns of the journal include, but not limited to: <br>• Original articles and new techniques in cancer research and therapy<br>• Quick reports <br>• Case reports <br>• Clinicopathologic discussion <br>• Discussion of clinical case <br>• Expert views <br>• Exchange of experience <br>• Novel hypothesis <br>• Correspondence <br>• Publish the original incoming letter <br>• Academic contending/Debate <br>• etc.</p> SyncSci Publishing Pte Ltd, Singapore en-US Current Cancer Reports 2661-3166 <p>Authors contributing to&nbsp;<em>Current Cancer Reports</em>&nbsp;agree to publish their articles under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License</a>, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.</p> Epidemiological and histopathological features of ocular tumors in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To describe epidemiological and histopathological features of ocular tumors observed in two ophthalmology departments in Bukavu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. <br><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive study and a simple proportion analysis were performed to describe the epidemiological and histopathological characteristics of 103 consecutive anatomical pieces taken after tumor removal from two ophthalmology services in Bukavu city from January 2018 to December 2020. <br><strong>Results</strong>: Children accounted for 40% of patients and ocular tumors were unilateral in 84.5% of cases. The most common locations were the retina (34.8%), conjunctiva (33.7%) and eyelids (22.8%). Benign tumors predominated (51.4%), followed by malignant tumors (37.9%), and undetermined tumors (15.5%). The main histological forms found were retinoblastoma (34.8%), conjunctival nevus (20.6%), and palpebral granuloma (16.3%). <br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Ocular tumors are common in Bukavu. Histopathological examination remains essential to guide management to reduce the risk of recurrence and related complications.</p> Baudoin Budwaga Manwa Dany Biraheka Kabesha Olivier Mukuku Eric Heri Nabuloko Rolande Hadisi Nsimire Philippe Bianga Katchunga Zacharie Kibendelwa Tsongo Stanis Okitotsho Wembonyama Théophile Barhwamire Kabesha Raphaël Bulakali Chirimwami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 4 144 149 10.25082/CCR.2022.01.004 Women’s breast cancer risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. Risk factors for this disease are numerous and their prevalence varies according to racial and ethnic groups and geographical regions. Therefore, we sought to identify BC risk factors in the Congolese population.<br> <strong>Methods</strong>: A case-control study was conducted at the Nganda Hospital Center in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. One hundred and sixty patients with breast cancer (cases) were compared to 320 women who did not have BC (controls). STATA version 16 was used to analyze data with statistical significance considered at p &lt; 0.05.<br> <strong>Results</strong>: There is a strong association between BC in Congolese women and early menarche age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.3), family history of BC (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2-5.5), overweight (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.7), and obesity (aOR = 7.3; 95% CI: 4.0-13.4).<br> <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our results indicate the presence of certain conventional risk factors. Thus, these results will be of great value in establishing adequate evidence-based awareness and preventive measures among the Congolese population.</p> Stanislas Maseb'a Mwang Sulu Olivier Mukuku Arnold Maseb Sul Sulu François Musul Mukeng Bienvenu Lebwaze Massamba Désiré Kulimba Mashinda Stanislas Okitotsho Wembonyama Vicky Lokomba Antoine Tshimpi Wola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 4 139 143 10.25082/CCR.2022.01.003 A case of life threatening acute Nivolumab induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemia <p>Autoimmune haemolytic anemia is a rare but potentially catastrophic adverse event of im-mune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. We present the case of a gentleman who presented with non-specific symptoms while undergoing adjuvant Nivolumab therapy after potential-ly curative surgery for gastroesophageal cancer. The patient’s haemoglobin deteriorated to 4.7 g/dl with no evidence of bleeding and serologic tests indicative of hemolysis. He re-ceived emergent massive RCC transfusion receiving 9 units of bloods in 1 night, and was commenced on high dose methylprednisolone. During subsequent weeks of inpatient care, the patient continued to received multiple daily red cell transfusions and had a total of 53 RCC transfusions during admission, along with high doses of steroids,4 doses of weekly Rituximab as well as 2 doses of IVIG.While he was discharged on day 38 of admission, he required a slow taper of steroids over 6 months. Immune related hemolytic anemias are a rare corollary of immune check point inhibitors. The cases of immune related AIHA docu-mented in the literature were treated with steroids, Rituximab and IVIG, which are also rec-ommended by guidelines for the treatment of immune related haemolytic anemias.</p> Abdul Rehman Farooq Clodagh Keohane Maeve Crowley Laura Whelan Neasa Gallwey Claire Brady Seamus O'Reilly ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 4 133 138 10.25082/CCR.2022.01.002 Breast cancer in women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Current state of knowledge <p>Breast cancer (BC) is a major health problem with an increasing trend in prevalence and mortality worldwide. It is the most common of female cancers in the world, and thus ranks first in both developed and developing countries. Current knowledge on the epidemiology and biological aspects of breast cancer in women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo remains insufficient and poorly documented. Given the trend towards urbanization of the Congolese population, it is likely that current data will change in the coming decades, due to a foreseeable change in risk factors for the disease. Therefore, the establishment of a cancer registry is necessary in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) health system for better epidemiological monitoring of cancer and surveillance data necessary for the development of cancer control policies and their integration into primary health care. Strategies that include building local capacity in terms of human resources, equipment and technology transfer could lead to new concepts and therapies adapted to the Congolese geographical context.</p> Stanislas Maseb-A-Mwang Sulu Olivier Mukuku Stanislas Okitotsho Wembonyama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-23 2022-03-23 4 128 132 10.25082/CCR.2022.01.001 Cigarette smoking after surviving breast cancer: A pilot study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Quitting smoking improves cancer survival and improves symptoms of cancer and its treatment. Cancer diagnosis presents a powerful motivation for leading a healthier lifestyle and embracing behavioral changes, such as quitting smoking. Many smokers quit after a cancer diagnosis, but some survivors continue to smoke. This study examined the characteristics associated with being a former rather than a current smoker among women treated for breast cancer. <br><strong>Methods</strong>: In this pilot, cross-sectional study, data were collected via postal surveys in women who had a history of smoking and breast cancer (N = 69). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with smoking status. <br><strong>Results</strong>: Of this sample, 13 were current smokers and 56 were former smokers. Age, race, education, and employment status were not associated with smoking status. Women with a higher income were significantly more likely to have successfully quit smoking (former smoking OR = 5.94, p &lt; 0.05). Most women were light smokers and reported intentions to quit. <br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study attests to the addictive nature of smoking and the difficulty in achieving successful quitting even after breast cancer diagnosis. Results highlighted the role of low income as a barrier in smoking cessation. A follow up study is warranted to uncover potential barriers to smoking cessation in order to individualize tobacco treatment to meet the needs of motivated light smoking cancer patients. Intensive innovative tobacco treatment approaches are warranted, to reach successful cessation particularly among cancer patients with lower income.</p> Ban A. Majeed Deepak Nag Ayyala Steven S. Coughlin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 4 124 127 10.25082/CCR.2021.01.008 Financial assistance programs for cancer patients <p><strong>Background</strong>:&nbsp; The high costs of oncology care can lead to financial stress and have deleterious effects on the well-being of patients and their families. &nbsp;However, only a handful of financial assistance programs for cancer patients have been implemented and evaluated to date.&nbsp;<br><strong>Recent findings</strong>:&nbsp; Key features of reported programs include instrumental support through financial navigation or education for patients, and financial or charitable support for healthcare costs. Only one of the programs successfully reduced actual out-of-pocket costs for patients, though others were associated with psychosocial benefits or increased knowledge of financial resources.&nbsp; Four of the 5 programs evaluated to date were pilot studies with small sample sizes, and most lack control groups for comparison.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>:&nbsp; Additional studies are needed that include larger sample sizes and with comparison groups of cancer patients in order to determine whether the counseling and navigator programs are effective in addressing financial distress in this patient population.&nbsp; Of particular interest are programs designed for low-income patients and those who lack health care insurance.&nbsp; Financial assistance programs that implement solutions at different levels of the healthcare system (individual patients, providers, healthcare institutions) are more likely to be effective. &nbsp;Multi-level interventions are needed that address the systems in which patients access care, the actual costs of services and drugs, and the individual needs of patients in order to reduce financial hardship for cancer patients.</p> Steven S. Coughlin Lorraine T. Dean Jorge E. Cortes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 4 119 123 10.25082/CCR.2021.01.007 Day 21 serum Free Light Chain (FLC) levels as a predictor of response to therapy in symptomatic multiple myeloma <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To study the predictive value of reduction of involved free light chain level on Day 21 of chemotherapy for achievement of VGPR after 4 cycles of induction chemotherapy. <br><strong>Methods:</strong> We conducted a prospective observational study in twenty eight patients of newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma with iFLC&nbsp; ≥ 100mg/L. Serum FLC assay was done at baseline and on day 21 of therapy. All patients were followed up till the end of induction therapy for response assessment based on the IMWG criteria. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was done to determine the cut off value of percent reduction in day 21 iFLC for achievement of VGPR or better. <br><strong>Results:</strong> After the induction chemotherapy, out of 28 patients, 13 patients achieved CR, 8 patients achieved VGPR, 4 patients achieved PR and 2 patients had stable disease (≥ VGPR = 21 patients, &lt; VGPR = 6 patients). One patient expired after 2<sup>nd</sup> cycle of chemotherapy. The mean per cent reduction in day 21 iFLC level as compared to baseline was 91.5% and 57.1% in patients achieving ≥ VGPR and &lt; VGPR (P &lt; 0.0001), respectively. No other baseline parameter was found to be significantly different between the 2 groups.&nbsp; ROC curve analysis demonstrated a cut off of 84% reduction in iFLC value on day 21 (AUC of 0.937) had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 100% in predicting the achievement of VGPR after four cycles of induction chemotherapy. <br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Monitoring iFLC levels on Day 21 can be used as an important tool for early identification of responders/non responders to myeloma therapy. We recommend serum FLC assay to be done on day 21 as a real time assessment of treatment response in newly diagnosed myeloma patients. Key words- Multiple Myeloma, involved Free Light Chain (iFLC), Very Good Partial Response (VGPR)</p> Sabina Langer Lakshmi Mythilli Mulam Nitin Gupta Jyoti Kotwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-09 2021-09-09 4 110 118 10.25082/CCR.2021.01.006 Problems in living among breast cancer survivors <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Breast cancer survivors may experience worse social, physical, and emotional function compared to the general population, although symptoms often improve over time. Data on problems in living can help to improve interventions and supportive care for breast cancer survivors. Symptoms such as fatigue, pain, difficulties with sleep, and sexual problems may have an adverse effect on the quality of life of breast cancer survivors. <br><strong>Methods</strong>: We examined problems in living using data from a survey of 164 breast cancer survivors who had completed primary therapy for the disease. <br><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 164 women completed the study questions (response rate 16.4%). The mean age of the women was 67 years. Among all participants, 66.7% were white, 29.5% were African-American, and the remainder were of other races. Almost all of the symptoms were more likely to be reported by participants who were &lt; 55 years of age. Other important correlates of symptoms included non-white race, marital status, and having a household income of less than $50,000 per year. <br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of this study highlight the need for caregivers to emphasize screening for and discussion of symptoms, including sleep difficulties, fatigue, loss of strength, aches and pains, and muscle or joint stiffness. Of particular concern are younger survivors and those who are African American or low-income.</p> Steven S. Coughlin Deepak Nag Ayyala Jorge E. Cortes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 4 101 109 10.25082/CCR.2021.01.005 Individual prostate cancer screening: Practice survey with general practitioner of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To analyze the practices of general practitioners (GPs) in terms of recommendations on individual screening for prostate cancer (PCa). <br><strong>Methods</strong>: An anonymous cross-sectional survey using a pre-established questionnaire was conducted among 193 GPs in the city of Lubumbashi from May 1st to July 31st, 2020. The questionnaire included three parts: identity criteria of GPs, screening practice and the opinion of GPs on the recommendations. <br><strong>Results</strong>: The participation rate was 79%. Eighty-two-point nine percent of respondents said they offered screening for PCa; 42.5% of them said they offered this screening to all men within a certain age limit, ranging between 50 to 75 years in 38.8% of the cases. Only 12.5% of GPs provided complete prior information to their patients. Thirty-six-point three percent of GPs reported combining digital rectal examination with total PSA testing, but in the presence of an abnormality, 60.6% reported that they referred their patients directly to the urologist without ordering other additional investigations (first or second line). Finally, 32.7% of GPs found that the recommendations disseminated were appropriate for their practice. <br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Individual screening for PCa is widely proposed; but there are differences between the practices reported by GPs and official recommendations of learned societies. Our study highlights the need to popularize the recommendations of learned societies to GPs.</p> Pitchou Mukaz Mbey Dieudonné Moliwa Moningo Augustin Mukakala Kibonge Patrick Zihalirwa Ciza Igor Mujinga Wa Mujinga Manix Banza Ilunga Gabriel Waratch Unen Wakunga Olivier Mukuku Willy Kalau Arung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 4 95 100 10.25082/CCR.2021.01.004 Predictors of prostate cancer screening among African American men treated at an Academic Medical Center in the Southern United States <p><strong>Background</strong>: The controversy surrounding prostate cancer screening, coupled with the high rates of incidence and mortality among African American men, increase the importance of African American men engaging in an informed decision-making process around prostate cancer screening. <br><strong>Purpose</strong>: To examine predictors of prostate cancer screening via the prostatespecific antigen (PSA) test. Secondary objectives were to examine whether African American men have been screened for prostate cancer; their confidence in making an informed choice about whether PSA testing is right for them; and whether they have talked with their provider about PSA testing and engaged in an informed decision-making process around prostate cancer screening. <br><strong>Methods</strong>: We conducted a study among a sample of African American men patients ages &gt; 40 years. <br><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 65 men completed the questionnaire (response rate = 6.5%). The mean age of the men was 64.4 years. Most of the participants (90.8%) reported a regular healthcare provider and that their provider had discussed the PSA test with them (81.3%). About 84.1% of the men ever had a PSA test, but only 38.0% had one in the past year. Most of the men reported that they make the final decision about whether to have a PSA test on their own (36.5%) or after seriously considering their doctor’s opinion (28.6%). About 31.8% of the men reported that they share responsibility about whether to have a PSA test with their doctor. About half of the participants (49.2%) reported that they have made a decision about whether to have a PSA test and they are not likely to change their mind. The majority of the men (75%) perceived their risk of prostate cancer to be about the same level of risk as other men who were their age. The men’s knowledge of prostate cancer was fair to good (mean prostate cancer knowledge scale = 10.37, SD 1.87). Knowledge of prostate cancer was positively associated with receipt of a PSA test (p &lt; 0.0206). <br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The modest overall prostate cancer knowledge among these participants, including their risk for prostate cancer, indicates a need for prostate cancer educational interventions in this patient population.</p> Steven S. Coughlin Deepak Nag Ayyala John S. Luque Justin Xavier Moore ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 4 81 94 10.25082/CCR.2021.01.003