Chemical Reports <p><a title="Registered Journal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="journalreviewercredits" src="/journal/public/site/images/jasongong/Logo_ReviewerCredits-journal.jpg" alt="ReviewerCredits" align="right"></a><strong>Chemical Reports</strong><strong> (ISSN:2591-7943)</strong>&nbsp;is an open access, continuously published, international, refereed&nbsp; journal in chemical science and engineering field, publishing chemical insight, technology, characterization, and new results as broadly defined.</p> <p>Topics of interest include, but are not limited to the following:<br>• Chemical engineering<br>• Chemical technology<br>• Biochemical engineering and technology<br>• Green Chemistry<br>• Chemicals synthesis and process<br>• Chemicals structure<br>• Thermodynamics<br>• Reaction and catalysis<br>• Nanotechnology<br>• Chemical optimization<br>• Mechanics of nanostructures<br>• NEMS problems<br>• Nonlocal elasticity</p> en-US <p>Authors contributing to&nbsp;<em>Chemical Reports</em>&nbsp;agree to publish their articles under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License</a>, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.</p> (Snowy Wang) (Alan Tan) Fri, 02 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 Comparative study of the combustion properties of briquettes produced from blends of mung beans shell, uncarbonized and carbonized sawdust <p>In this research, the combustion properties of the briquette produced by blending mung beans shell (MBS) with carbonized danta wood sawdust was compared with that of the briquette produced by blending MBS with uncarbonized danta wood sawdust. The briquettes wereproduced atdifferentsawdust to biomass ratios (100%:0, 70%:30%, 50%: 50%, 30%: 70% and 100%:0). Cassava starch was used as a binder. Proximate analysis (moisture content, ash content, volatile matter and fixed carbon) and combustion properties (calorific value, ignition time, burning time, burning rate, specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) were calculated using standard methods. The results of the analyses showed that 100% sawdust briquette samples had the lowest moisture content, 4.74±0.00 for carbonized sawdust and 6.76±0.02 for uncarbonized sawdust.100% uncarbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette samples had a fixed carbon of 68.93±0.02 and 87.46%, Ash content:3.70±0.00% and 2.18±0.04%,volatile matter: 20.61±0.00 and 5.61±0.04 and calorific value: 29.401±0.0 MJ/Kg and 32.532±0.05 MJ/Kg respectively.The ignition time increase with increase in biomass load for uncarbonized sawdust samples and decrease with increase in biomass load for carbonized sawdust briquette samples. The burning time decreased from 86±0.57mins (70% sawdust + 30% biomass) to 70±0.57mins (100% biomass) for the carbonized sawdust briquette samples and for the uncarbonized, it ranged from 68±0.00 (70% sawdust + 30% biomass) to 71.6±0.57 mins (30% sawdust + 70% biomass) and then dropped to 68±0.57(100% biomass load). The burning rate decreased in carbonizedbriquette samples and increased in uncarbonized briquette samples with increase in biomass load. The specific fuel consumption for carbonized and uncarbonized sawdust briquette sample decreased with increase in MBS load. 100% carbonized and uncarbonized sawdust briquette samples had a thermal efficiency of 8.78 and 16.47 respectively. It can be concluded that blend of carbonized sawdust and mung beans shell will make a better fuel due to better combustion properties than the uncarbonized sawdust samples.</p> Chinyere E. Umeocho, Cletus O. Ezidi, Eucharia N. Nwosu, Clementina I. Nwankwo, Kingsley C. Ezejiegu, Theresa U. Onuegbu Copyright (c) 2024 Chinyere E. Umeocho, Cletus O. Ezidi, Eucharia N. Nwosu, Clementina I. Nwankwo, Kingsley C. Ezejiegu, Theresa U. Onuegbu Mon, 13 May 2024 15:17:36 +0800 Concentration levels and pollution status of selected heavy metals in active dumpsites in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>This study was carried out to assess the extent of concentration exposure of As, Cu, Cr, Ni and Mn in the soils of five active dumpsites located at (Eliozu, Oyibo, Eneka, Eleme and Woji) in the city of Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria to evaluate the pollution indices of heavy metals. Soil samples were collected randomly at the quadrant from the dumpsite while control samples were collected from farmland 25 km away from the dumpsite. Some physiochemical parameters (pH, TOC and CEC) of the soils were evaluated using standard techniques, while the heavy metal concentrations were evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The pollution levels of soil heavy metals were assessed using several pollution indices. The mean concentration of heavy metals (mg/kg) ranged between As (ND – 0.45), Cr (ND – 2.21), Cu (6.05 – 51.87), Mn (3.24 – 37.91), Ni (ND – 13.50) across the studied dumpsites. The heavy metal levels in soil samples observed were in the order of Cu &gt; Mn &gt; Ni &gt; Cr &gt; As (Eleme), Cu &gt; Mn &gt; As &gt; Ni &gt; Cr (Eliozu), Cu &gt; Mn &gt; Ni &gt; Cr &gt; As (Eneka), Cu &gt; Mn &gt; Cr (Oyigbo), Cu &gt; Mn &gt; Ni &gt; Cr &gt; As (Woji), Cu &gt; Mn &gt; Ni &gt; Cr &gt; As (Control Site). The pH results were relatively acidic across the studied dumpsites ranging from 5.7±0.58 to 6.63± 0.02, while the TOC levels were low to moderate showing no wide disparity in the values. The Cation exchange capacity (CEC) showed a range of 13.98±0.186 (Eneka) to 20.98±0.061 cmol/kg (Woji) across the studied dumpsites. The Igeo values except for Ni, Cu and Mn at Eneka dumpsite, Cr and As in all the studied dumpsites revealed moderate to heavy contamination. Pollution load index (˃ 1) was&nbsp; in the studied dumpsites which implies that there is heavy metal pollution across the studied dumpsites. Anthropogenicity indicates that human activity is mostly responsible for the increase in metals in the studied area. Low ecological risk indices for the heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cr, Mn, As) were found in all the sampling locations except for copper in Oyibo dumpsite. According to the findings, there is a low to moderate level of heavy metal pollution in the soils from the dumpsite, which can deteriorate the food ecosystem if adequate measures are not put in place.</p> Victor Uchenna Okechukwu, Valentine Ifenna Onwukeme, Victor Chukwuemeka Eze, Chiedozie Chukwuemeka Aralu Copyright (c) 2024 Victor Uchenna Okechukwu, Valentine Ifenna Onwukeme, Victor Chukwuemeka Eze, Chiedozie Chukwuemeka Aralu Tue, 05 Mar 2024 10:15:51 +0800 Chemical fractionation and mobility factor of some heavy metals in refuse dumpsite soil in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria <p>The geochemical forms of some heavy metals in refuse dump soils at Agu-Awka, Awka metropolis was studied in order to assess the mobility and bioavailability of the metals and hence their potential environmental risk. Exchangeable fraction (F1) contained the % fraction of 13.23% for Cd, 17.43% for Cr, 14.63% for Pb, 12.40% for Ni, 25.34% for Zn and 15.92% for Mn and these are in the order of Zn ˃ Cr ˃ Mn ˃ Pb ˃ Cd ˃ Ni. The carbonate fraction (F2) contained the % fraction of 17.08% for Cd, 17.84% for Cr, 9.20% for Pb, 28.32% for Ni, 13.76% for Zn and 8.49% for Mn and these are in the order of Ni ˃ Cr ˃ Cd ˃ Zn ˃ Pb ˃ Mn. Lead was predominantly associated with organic fraction with a result of 42.64% followed by chromium and manganese with the values of 22.48% and 20.00% respectively. The organic bound metals were in the abundance trend of Pb ˃ Cr ˃ Mn ˃ Cd ˃ Ni ˃ Zn. The highest values of metal in Fe-Mn oxide phase was manganese with a value of 32.18%, followed by cadmium with the value of 21.76%. The values of the other metals bound to this phase were 17.52%, 16.64%, 13.99% and 12.90% for Zn, Ni, Cr, and Pb respectively. Zinc with the value of 32.20% was predominantly associated with the residual fraction. The other metals bound to this phase had their values to be 30.13% for cadmium, 28.24% for chromium, 20.61% for lead, 29.41% for nickel and 23.37% for manganese. The mobility factor values of the metals were relatively low and they followed the order of Ni &gt; Zn &gt; Cr &gt; Cd &gt; Mn &gt; Pb. That notwithstanding, soils from studied area should be carefully monitored to prevent the release of these metals due to redox reactions which may make them available to plants through absorption.</p> Ogochukwu J. Okakpu, Patrice A. C. Okoye, Theresa U. Onuegbu Copyright (c) 2024 Ogochukwu J. Okakpu, Patrice A. C. Okoye, Theresa U. Onuegbu Fri, 02 Feb 2024 10:18:50 +0800 Effect of organic manures and micronutrients on seed production of carrot (Daucus carota L.) <p>The experiment was conducted during 2021-22 in <em>rabi </em>season. The field study to assess the effects of organic manures and micronutrients on &nbsp;seed production of carrot (<em>Daucus carota</em> L.) cv. Pusa Rudhira was carried out at Horticulture farm, SKNCOA, Jobner, Rajasthan, India. The study revealed that the application of Poultry manure @ 2.5 t/ha significantly increased the plant height (41.95 cm), Number of shoots per plant (12.71), chlorophyll content (1.11 mg/100g), days to 50% umbel initiation (134.50 days) , number of umbels per plant (17.30), number of seed per umbel (1177.35), diameter of umbel (16.71 cm), seed weight per plant (8.43 g), days to seed maturity (185.27 minimum days) and seed yield per hectare (6.24 q/ha). Similarly, the spray of &nbsp;ZnSO<sub>4</sub> @ 0.5% &nbsp;to the carrot crop significantly increased the plant height (40.60 cm),&nbsp; number of shoots per plant (12.49), chlorophyll content (1.07 mg/100g), days to 50% umbel initiation (133.51 days), number of umbels per plant (16.30), number of seed per umbel (1175.30), diameter of umbel (16.10 cm), seed weight per plant (8.39 g), days to seed maturity (184.12 days ) and seed yield per hectare (6.21 q/ha)</p> Asha Dhaka, D.K. Yadav, Pooja Dhaka, Kaushalya Choudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Asha Dhaka, D.K. Yadav, Pooja Dhaka, Kaushalya Choudhary Tue, 20 Dec 2022 14:57:15 +0800 Extraction and analysis of back-sheet layer from waste silicon solar modules <p>The back-sheet shields the solar panel from UV rays, moisture, dust, and other environmental factors. With the enormous growth of the solar industry year after year, the demand for recycling is also increasing rapidly. In the present study, the back-sheet layer was extracted from a waste crystalline silicon PV module by thermally heating the module at 130˚C temperature. Various characterization techniques, including Raman, FTIR, SEM-EDAX, XRD, and TGA, were used to examine extracted back-sheet layer properties for its reuse. The Raman and FTIR spectra of extracted back-sheet are quite similar to those of reference PET back-sheet, indicating that no significant changes in composition occurred during the extraction process. The extracted back-sheet has a composition of carbon and oxygen as witnessed from EDAX spectroscopy. The extracted back sheet maintained its semicrystalline behavior as that of the reference back sheet, observed by XRD spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the thermal stability of extracted back-sheet is up to 252˚C in the air environment and up to 315˚C in the inert environment. Thermal degradation of extracted back-sheet is a two-step process in an air environment observed by differential thermogravimetry. The observed properties of extracted back-sheet are comparable to those of commercially available back-sheet, and the same may be reused in solar and polymer industries after appropriate processing.</p> Chitra Chitra, Dheeraj Sah, Parveen Saini, Sushil kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Chitra Chitra, Dheeraj Sah, Parveen Saini, Sushil kumar Fri, 16 Sep 2022 11:21:35 +0800 Fabrication of Pb₃O₄ and Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles and their application as the catalysts in thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate <p>Nanoparticles (NPs) of lead tetroxide (Pb<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) with the spherical morphology were manufactured by the reaction of lead nitrate with sodium hydroxide, while the nanoparticles (NPs) of red iron oxide (Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) with similar morphology were fabricated by hydrothermal route in the presence of ferric chloride hexahydrate as the precursor. Evaluation of the chemical structure, the purity and the morphology of the manufactured Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and Pb<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> NPs was carried out by analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM). The outcomes of XRD recognized establishment of the desired oxides, wherever the SEM images clearly exhibited the morphology of the manufactured Pb<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4 </sub>and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> as the spherical NPs with an average particle sizes of near to 40 and 46 nm, respectively. The catalytic effect of the metallic oxide NPs on the perfection of ammonium perchlorate (AP) thermal decomposing was established by testing their AP nano-composites via differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) together with thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Thermal behavior studies displayed that adding of 5% Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>/Pb<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> NPs (as the mixture) delivers a concerned catalytic effect during AP thermal decomposition. Additionally, thermal decomposition of AP could be amended by adding of 2% Pb<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> NPs. Further comparison of the NPs catalytic effects was obtained by computing the values of activation energies (<em>E</em>) and thermodynamic parameters (<em>i.e.</em>, Δ<em>S</em><sup>#</sup>, Δ<em>H</em><sup>#</sup> and Δ<em>G</em><sup>#</sup>) for their thermal decomposition by non-isothermal approaches.</p> Hossein Momenizadeh Pandas, Mostafa Fazli Copyright (c) 2022 Hossein Momenizadeh Pandas, Mostafa Fazli Wed, 07 Sep 2022 14:38:24 +0800 Progress of hollow materials in diagnosis of COVID-19 <p>Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, it has dramatically changed the global geopolitics, economics, and even society standard norms. The present world scenario is changed regarding business, traveling, and education. Rapid global dissemination and the high mortality rate of coronaviruses are the greatest challenges for drug developers. It will be moving forward toward the identification and treatment of emerging coronaviruses with the aid of nanotechnology. The COVID-19 pandemic raised the question of researchers’ capability to manage this dilemma in a short period. In the present review, we described how hallow material could be developed as a pro-drug that shows an excellent therapeutic effect. Hollow nanoparticles that exploration of antiviral or diagnostic agents against emerging coronaviruses. Hollow nanomaterials in vaccine development are essential because hollow nanocomposites are suitable for mimicking viral structures and antigen delivery. A biosensor that generates a signal from a transducer for comparing and analyzing biological conjugates such as cell receptors, antibodies, RNA, DNA, and nucleic acids. Different biosensors, such as graphene-based biosensors, nanoplasmonic sensor chips, nanomaterial biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, dual modality biosensors, and optical biosensors, have several advantages, characteristics, and a wide range of applications, most remarkably in medical treatment and are used for monitoring and diagnosis. This review focuses on modern experimental studies to identify intelligent and innovative bio/nanomaterials and matrices for developing targeted and controlled drug release systems, nanosensors and nanovaccines to combat pathogenic viruses.</p> Abid Hussain, Sonia Shabbir, Muhammad Faizan, Muhammad Ali Tajwar Copyright (c) 2022 Abid Hussain, Sonia Shabbir, Muhammad Faizan, Muhammad Ali Tajwar Mon, 05 Sep 2022 09:43:34 +0800 Evaluation of an adsorption process for the treatment of leachates using biopolymers extracted from organic waste obtained from the poultry industry <p>The adsorption capacity of three eggshell bioadsorbents was evaluated to remove contaminants from raw leachate. Optimal conditions for the removal of suspended solids, color, and organic compounds, as COD, were achieved by batch experiments with three levels of pH and absorbent concentrations. Kinetic studies and isotherms were developed to understand the behavior of COD removal by the bioadsorbents. The chemical and physical characterizations indicate the leachate used in the present study had characteristics between mature and intermediate leachates. The optimal adsorption conditions were pH 2.0 and 1.0 gram (0.5 g/L) of adsorbent. Adsorbent M showed the best adsorption capacities, removing 99.06% (1446 NTU) of turbidity, 86.25% (4140 UPt-Co) of color and 54.56% of COD (1530mg/L). The data obtained through the kinetic and isothermal tests were better fitted to the pseudo first order and Langmuir models, with an equilibrium adsorption capacity (Qe) of 139 mg of COD/g of adsorbent and a specific speed of 1.51 min<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Yeinner Tarazona, María Neftalí Rojas-Valencia, Juan Antonio Araiza-Aguilar Copyright (c) 2022 Yeinner Tarazona, María Neftalí Rojas-Valencia, Juan Antonio Araiza-Aguilar Thu, 02 Jun 2022 19:53:00 +0800 Textile solid waste in product development studies <p>Textile solid waste disposal and utilization is currently an important concern worldwide. Fashion and traditional articles of textiles are sourcing the solid textile waste generation. An increasing population and consumption of fiber and textile articles emphasize the development studies for the re-use of solid textile waste. Production of textiles is accompanied by the release of volatile emission and effluent during processing, and disposal of fibrous articles are producing solid waste. The hazardous waste generated from the textile can be seen as pre- consumer solid waste (fiber, yarn, and fabric pieces), processing waste (volatiles, chemicals and effluent release during the process), and post- consumer waste (textile fabric, yarn, apparel, home textiles, technical textiles, <em>etc</em>.) dispose to environment following the service life. Therefore, re-using the fiber and textile articles can significantly reduce undesired effects to environment. Designing the products using solid textile waste can be a useful source for reducing the environmental hazard. This study describes the re-use of various fiber and textiles, though the case studies, particularly denim fabric, in designing the products for home decoration.</p> Faheem Uddin, Komal Umer, Syeda Tehniyat Anjum Copyright (c) 2022 Faheem Uddin, Komal Umer, Syeda Tehniyat Anjum Mon, 28 Mar 2022 16:26:04 +0800 Neuron-like tubule extension of giant polymer vesicles <p>Giant polymer vesicles consisting of amphiphilic diblock copolymers are helpful as artificial biomembrane models based on many similarities in their size, structure, morphological transformation, membrane permeability, <em>etc</em>.&nbsp; This paper describes the creation of neuron-like tubule extension employing the polymer vesicles.&nbsp; The polymerization-induced self-assembly was performed in the presence of micron-sized spherical vesicles consisting of poly(methacrylic acid)-<em>block</em>-poly(methyl methacrylate-<em>random</em>-methacrylic acid), PMAA-<em>b</em>-P(MMA-<em>r</em>-MAA), through the photo nitroxide-mediated controlled/living radical polymerization (photo-NMP) using 4-methoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (MTEMPO) as the mediator.&nbsp; The photo-NMP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) was carried out in an aqueous methanol solution (CH<sub>3</sub>OH/H<sub>2</sub>O = 3/1 <em>v</em>/<em>v</em>) using poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) end-capped with MTEMPO and the spherical vesicles of PMAA<sub>141</sub>-<em>b</em>-P(MMA<sub>0.831</sub>-<em>r</em>-MAA<sub>0.169</sub>)<sub>368</sub> with an 11.7-mm diameter.&nbsp; The vesicles projected many processes on their surface during the early stage of the polymerization.&nbsp; As the polymerization progressed, only one or two of the processes extended to thick tubules, accompanied by the slow growth of thin tubules.&nbsp; Further progress of the polymerization elongated the thick tubules and caused branching of the tubules.&nbsp; The tubules had a vesicular structure because cup-like vesicles joined in line were formed during the initial stage of the extension.&nbsp; The polymerization livingness supported the tubule extension based on a linear increase in the molecular weight of the component copolymer and a negligible change in the molecular weight distribution versus the monomer conversion.&nbsp; The spherical vesicles were similar to the neurons in the tubule extension for the initial projection, followed by the elongation and branching.&nbsp; This similarity implies that the neurite extension in the neurons is related to the inherent property of the bilayer membrane.</p> Eri Yoshida Copyright (c) 2021 Eri Yoshida Fri, 26 Nov 2021 11:38:58 +0800