Frontiers in Molecular Immunology <p><a title="Registered Journal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="journalreviewercredits" src="/journal/public/site/images/jasongong/Logo_ReviewerCredits-journal.jpg" alt="ReviewerCredits" align="right"></a><strong>Frontiers in Molecular Immunology&nbsp;</strong> (FMI) (ISSN: 2630-5429)&nbsp;is an open access, continuously published, international, refereed&nbsp; journal covering both basic immunology research and clinical applications, and provides the latest information and advancements in the immunological response of the host, both <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em>.</p> <p><strong>FMI</strong> will accept high-profile submissions including but not limited to: <br>• Molecular mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity phenomena<br>• Molecular aspects of immune regulation<br>• Cell signalling and activation<br>• Cellular receptors and soluble mediators <br>• Immunogenomics, immunoproteomics and immunoglycomics<br>• Molecular (immuno) therapeutics <br>• Immunochemistry <br>• Impact of molecular changes at the tissue level</p> en-US <p>Authors contributing to&nbsp;<em>Frontiers in Molecular Immunology</em>&nbsp;agree to publish their articles under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License</a>, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.</p> (Snowy Wang) (Alan Tan) Tue, 16 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 Virtual screening as therapeutic strategy of COVID-19 targeting angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV- 2 Spike protein performs a key role in the interaction with Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), leading to both subsequent S2 domain-mediated membrane fusion and incorporation of viral RNA in host cells. <strong>Methods</strong>: In this study, we investigated the inhibitor’s targeted compounds through existing human ACE2 drugs to use as a future viral invasion. 54 FDA approved drugs were selected to assess their binding affinity to the ACE2 receptor. The structurebased methods via computational ones have been used for virtual screening of the best drugs from the drug database. <strong>Key Findings</strong>: The ligands “Cinacalcet” and “Levomefolic acid” highaffinity scores can be a potential drug preventing Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and human ACE2 interaction. Levomefolic acid from vitamin B family was proved to be a potential drug as a spike protein inhibitor in previous clinical and computational studies. Besides that, in this study, the capability of Levomefolic acid to avoid ACE2 and Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 interaction is indicated. Therefore, it is worth to consider this drug for more in vitro investigations as ACE2 and Spike protein inhibition candidate. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The two Cinacalcet and Levomefolic acid are the two ligands that have highest energy binding for human ACE2 blocking among 54 FDA approved drugs.</p> Zahra Sharifinia, Samira Asadi, Mahyar Iranibazaz, Abdollah Allahverdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0800 Efficacy and safety parameters of a novel COVID-19 vaccine <p>Considering the fact that vaccine efficacy may be a difficult concept for physicians and health officials alike, we decided to explain it using data from the first publication on the efficacy and safety of a COVID-19 vaccine produced by Pfizer/BioNTech. We examined the published data and calculated common epidemiological parameters such as RRR (relative risk reduction), RR (relative risk), ARR (absolute risk reduction) and NNT (number needed to treat) for 3 groups of patients as described in the original paper. Further, we calculated safety parameters for the vaccine as NNH (number needed to harm) for any, related and severe side effects as mentioned by the investigators. We argue that both NNT and NNH are necessary estimates of how a vaccine might perform in real life and that a robust understanding of efficacy is vital for patients and health care providers as well as health officials in order to make responsible and balanced policy decisions regarding vaccination.</p> Bozena Riedel-Baima, Roman Zielinski, Kornelia Polok ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Mar 2021 11:58:00 +0800 SOCS1/2 controls NF-κB activity induced by HSP70 by degrading MyD88-adapter-like protein (Mal) in porcine macrophages <p>Heat stress induces suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS2 expression in the intestinal gut and disrupts&nbsp;inflammatory cytokine production in pigs. These changes may be important to the development of inflammatory bowel disease in heat-stressed pigs. However, the&nbsp;underlying mechanisms have not yet been completely elucidated. In the present study, we examined the roles of SOCS1 and SOCS2 in regulating the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway in CRL-2845 porcine macrophages. Ectopic expression of HSP70 significantly modulated NF-κB activity (<em>p</em>&nbsp;≤ 0.05). Moreover, co-expression of SOCS1 or SOCS2 with HSP70 reduced NF-κB activity, which was abolished by SOCS1 or SOCS2 knockdown with &nbsp;small interfering&nbsp;RNA. Additionally, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-adaptor-like (Mal) protein was down-regulated in cells expressing SOCS1 and SOCS2. SOCS1 and SOCS2 were found to negatively regulate the activity of NF-κB induced by HSP70 overexpression by degrading Mal. These findings may facilitate the development of novel SOCS1-based and SOCS2-based therapeutic strategies for controlling heat stress-related disorders in pigs.</p> Yanhong Yong, Lianyun Wu, Minglong Ma, Biao Fang, Tianyue Yu, Junyu Li, Canying Hu, Rumin Jia, Xianghong Ju ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 06:49:22 +0800 Frontiers in molecular immunology Chenghua Li, Prof. PhD, Ming Guo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 07 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0800