Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Research <p><a title="Registered Journal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="journalreviewercredits" src="/journal/public/site/images/jasongong/Logo_ReviewerCredits-journal.jpg" alt="ReviewerCredits" align="right"></a><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Research (JPBR)</strong> (ISSN:2630-533X)&nbsp; is an open access, continuously published, international, refereed&nbsp; journal. The aim of the journal is to provide the authors a timely and peer reviewed process for evaluation and publication of their manuscripts. All articles submitted to JPBR will undergo a rigorous double-blind peer review, and all published articles can be downloaded and read for free. JPBR will pay wide attention to the trends in related fields and insist on publishing original research work of highest quality.</p> <p><strong>JPBR</strong> publishes high quality original research work, reviews, and short communications in the following areas:<br><strong>Pharmaceutical Sciences:<br></strong>• Pharmaceutics<br> • Pharmacology and Toxicology<br> • Medicinal Chemistry<br> • Physical Pharmacy<br> • Pharmaceutical Analysis<br> • Chromatography and Hyphenated Techniques<br> • Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry<br> • Nanotechnology for Pharmaceutical Drug Formulations<br><strong>Biopharmaceutical Sciences:</strong> <br> • Biochemistry<br> • Biotechnology<br> • Molecular Biology<br> • Immunology and Microbiology</p> en-US <p>Authors contributing to&nbsp;<em>Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Research</em>&nbsp;agree to publish their articles under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License</a>, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.</p> (Snowy Wang) (Alan Tan) Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 (E)-2-Benzylidenecyclanones: Part XVII. An LC-MS study of microsomal transformation reactions of (E)-2-[(4'-methoxyphenyl)methylene]-benzosuberon-1-one: A cyclic chalcone analog <p>Biotransformation of the antiproliferative (<em>E</em>)-2-[(4’-methoxyphenyl)methylene]-benzosuberon-1-one (<strong>2c</strong>) was studied using rat liver microsomes. As a result of the CYP-catalyzed transformations, one monooxygenated (<strong>2c+O</strong>) and the demethylated (<strong>2c-CH<sub>2</sub></strong>) metabolites were identified by HPLC-MS. (<em>E</em>)-2-[(4’-methoxyphenyl)methylene]-benzosuberon-1-ol, the expected product of rat liver microsomal carbonyl reductase, was not found in the incubates. Microsomal GST-catalyzed reaction of the compound resulted in formation of diastereomeric GST-conjugates. Under the present HPLC conditions, the diastereomeric adducts were separated into two chromatographic peaks (<strong>2c-GSH-1</strong> and <strong>2c-GSH-2</strong>).</p> Fatemeh Kenari, Szilárd Molnár, Zoltán Pintér, Sobhan Bitaraf, Pál Perjési ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 Mar 2023 13:53:43 +0800 Therapeutic efficacies of nano carriers in delivering drugs <p>The drug release rates of poorly soluble medications such as doxorubicin has been investigated in this paper. Since the drug was fixed, different carriers used to deliver it and their release rates compiled from literature were evaluated in this paper. Even though targeting of drugs is very important in drug delivery, it is not within the scope of this paper. However, functionalization of the carrier may provide this benefit, those constructs are included for comparison in terms of hybrid constructs. Dendrimer, micelles and hybrid constructs used in the delivery of doxorubicin compared in this paper with respect to carrier size and drug loading. Assuming that the dissolution follows a slow release, 40-50% of the drug in the phase I representing a sudden or the burst release, followed by a steady release of 50-60% of the drug in phase II, not all the carriers and their sizes exhibited this behavior. Carriers and hybrid constructs 38nm size were more effective where phases I and II observed, however, as the size decreased to 34 nm or increased above 40nm, minimal release occurred meaning the carriers were too big to penetrate the vasculature permeability. Nano-carriers, dendrimers, micelle, hybrid dendrimers and micelles were found to be effective with the carrier manufacturing, generation, polymer, molecular weight of the carrier and other parameters. The release rate of doxorubicin was found to be effective with dendrimers together with hybrid dendrimer exhibiting a bilinear behavior. Micelles 20nm were more effective representing 60% of release in 10 hours followed by additional 25% in 35 hours exhibiting a bilinear behavior. Size greater than 20nm resulted in slow release reaching less than 10 to 40% of drug. Several drugs exhibited multiple slopes in their kinetics when micelle was used. The therapeutic efficacy of hybrid micelle was superior to other nano-carriers.</p> Bailey Krueger, Taylor Frazier, Sheila Galbreath, Tarun Goswami ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 17 Oct 2022 12:03:21 +0800 Effect of experimental hyperglycemia on intestinal elimination and biliary excretion of ibuprofen enantiomers in hyperglycemic rats <p>Diabetic complications are mostly due to hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia is reported to be associated with oxidative stress. It can result in changes in the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and membrane-integrated transporters, which can modify the fate of drugs and other xenobiotics. An <em>in vivo</em> intestinal perfusion model was used to investigate how experimental hyperglycemia affects intestinal elimination and biliary excretion of ibuprofen enantiomers in the rat. Experimental diabetes was induced by intravenous (i.v.) administration of streptozotocin. The intestinal perfusion medium contained 250 µM racemic ibuprofen. A validated isocratic chiral HPLC method with UV detection was developed to determine the amount of the two enantiomers in the intestinal perfusate and the bile. The results indicated that experimental diabetes doesn’t cause a statistically significant difference in the disappearance of ibuprofen enantiomers from the small intestine. Analysis of the bile samples detected only the (<em>S</em>)-IBP enantiomer. Excretion of the ibuprofen enantiomer to the bile decreased in experimental diabetes. The observed changes can affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs administered in hyperglycemic individuals.</p> Hawsar Othman Mohamed, Attila Almási, Pal Perjesi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 04 Oct 2022 13:34:02 +0800 How antidepressants affect the cerebral ischemic injury and ischemic stroke <p>Ischemic stroke is the main cause of long-term disability and death worldwide.&nbsp;Studies have pointed out that antidepressants not only can be used to treat depression, but also promote nerve regeneration, nerve plasticity,&nbsp;and recovery of nerve function after stroke.&nbsp;Some evidences indicated that antidepressants have beneficial effects on ischemic stroke. At the same time,&nbsp;there are also risks in treatment process. The mechanisms of the effects of antidepressants on ischemic stroke are complicated and rarely reported.&nbsp;This&nbsp;review summarizes the roles of antidepressants in patients and animal models of stroke, the possible mechanisms of&nbsp;antidepressants against brain injury induced by stroke, and the risks and challenges of antidepressants treatment in patients with ischemia.</p> Xiaohui Sun, Tian Wang, Lin Zhou, Yawen Yu, Zhaofeng Liu, Runchen Ma, Fenghua Fu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Feb 2023 14:19:00 +0800