Resources Environment and Information Engineering https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE <p><a title="Registered Journal" href="https://www.reviewercredits.com/user/resour-environ-inf-eng" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img class="journalreviewercredits" src="/journal/public/site/images/jasongong/Logo_ReviewerCredits-journal.jpg" alt="ReviewerCredits" align="right"></a><strong>Resources Environment and Information Engineering (REIE)</strong> (ISSN: 2661-3131) is an open access, continuously published, international, refereed&nbsp; journal which mainly studies the interdisciplinary and comprehensive fields of geospatial information science, resource science and environmental science. REIE publishes high quality special report, investigations, techniques and methods, original research work etc.</p> <p><strong>REIE</strong> will accept high-profile submissions including but not limited to: <br>• Environmental engineering<br>• Environmental Science <br>• Environmental monitoring and evaluation <br>• Improvement of ecological environment and pollution control <br>• Water pollution control theory and technology <br>• Air pollution control and catalytic technology <br>• Environmental planning and management <br>• Surveying and Mapping Engineering <br>• Geographic information system <br>• Remote sensing science and technology</p> SyncSci Publishing Pte Ltd, Singapore en-US Resources Environment and Information Engineering 2661-3131 <p>Authors contributing to&nbsp;<em>Resources Environment and Information Engineering</em>&nbsp;agree to publish their articles under the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0">Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License</a>, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.</p> Advancing the methods of geo-ecological forests monitoring under global warming https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2023.01.002 <p>One of the most dynamic natural processes on the planetary scale are changes in the global climate caused by changed chemical composition of atmosphere, with the corresponding demonstration of greenhouse effect. Global geosystem monitoring is most up-to-date and actually realizable on the scale of individual ecological regions. However, natural processes and events on the regional hierarchic level are characterized by the greatest diversity and high discreteness, therefore the regional response of global climatic changes inevitably takes the form of multiple reactions of vegetation, soils and landscapes as a whole to background climatic signals. The regional and local levels of geo-ecological prognoses still have not been developed enough due to insufficiency of factual material and methodical difficulties of the transfer of hydro-climatic prognosis from global to regional and local.The report expounds the main statements of original topo-ecological concept of prediction: “Global Changes on the Local Level”, as a basis of terrestrial&nbsp; bio-ecological and geosystem monitoring under global anthropogenic climatic changes. This concept makes it possible to carry out local empirical simulation of the regional bioclimatic trend and thereby reveal the mechanisms of transmission of global and regional climate signals to the local level. Objects of research are forest and forest-steppe landscape-zonal systems of the headwater of the Volga River basin. They are included in the boreal ecotone of Northern Eurasia as the territory most sensitive to climate change and, accordingly, very favorable for the development of theory and methods of environmental monitoring. The conservation and reproduction of forest resources under changing climatic conditions at the southern boundary of temperate forest zone, where forest communities are in conditions close to critical, is one of the fundamental ecological problems. The strategic goal of monitoring research is to reveal the environmental potential of sustainablility of forest ecosystems in the context of modern global warming.</p> Erland G. Kolomyts Copyright (c) 2024 Erland G. Kolomyts https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-06-13 2024-06-13 5 1 250 269 10.25082/REIE.2023.01.002 Ecological resources of boreal forests in the adsorption of greenhouse gases and in adaptation to global warming https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2023.01.001 <p>One of the most important ways to achieve the goals stipulated by the Paris (2015) Agreement on Climate Change is to solve a two-fold task: 1) the absorption of CO<sub>2</sub> by the forest communities from the atmosphere during global warming and 2) their adaptation to these climate changes, which should ensure the effectiveness of adsorption itself. Given report presents the regional experience of the numerical solution of this task. Calculations of the carbon balance of forest formations in the Oka-Volga River basin were carried out for global forecasts of moderate and extreme warming. The proposed index of labile elastic-plastic stability of forest ecosystems, which characterizes their isomorphic-restorative potential, was used as an indicator of adaptation. &nbsp; For the territory of the Oka river basin&nbsp; using multiple regression methods, a numerical experiment was conducted to assess the effect of the elastic stability of forest formations and the predicted climatic conditions on the carbon balance. A total of 11 linear equations were obtained (with a significance level of P &lt;10<sup>-6</sup>). In the upcoming 100-year forecast period, the overall elastic-plastic stability of forest formations should increase, and to the greatest extent with extreme warming. Accordingly, one should expect a significant increase in the ability of boreal forests to absorb greenhouse gases. A comparison of the carbon balance values ​​of forest formations obtained with initial (base) and final (final) stability indices gives an unambiguous picture of a significant increase in the adsorption capacity of boreal forests with an increase in their regenerative potential. A decisive contribution to increasing the adsorption of greenhouse gases is made by the growth of reforestation adaptation, which plays the role of a direct environmental factor.</p> Erland G. Kolomyts Copyright (c) 2023 Erland G. Kolomyts http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 5 1 237 249 10.25082/REIE.2023.01.001 Pacific ocean mega ecotone of Northern Eruasia as the belt of the origin of the modern continental biosphere https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2022.01.005 <p>The Pacific Ocean margin of Eurasia includes the age row (at the geologic time scale) of geoecotone objects which can be imagined by certain nodal stages of the evolutionary trajectory of exogenous landscape genesis in the continental biosphere. The reported strategy of scientific research is aimed at the establishment of zonal-regional and local regularities of landscape organization of insular and marginal-continental land in different morphotectonic and macroclimatic sectors of the Pacific Ocean mega-ecotone of Northern Eurasia, which is considered as a natural laboratory for studying the modern stage of development of the geographical envelope&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The empirical statistical models of the island-arc stage of continental biosphere development in the North-West Pacific have been created by the example of experimental test ground of the active Mendeleev volcano on the Kunashir Island (the South Kuril Ridge). It was shown that on this initial stage local geomorphological and hydro-edaphic conditions created the centers of origin of diverse phytocoenological structures. An exceptionally high percentage of green mass in the structure of production results in the acceleration of the biological cycle as a factor of stability of forest community under unfavorable conditions of “cold” oceanicity. Geothermal energy induces rearrangement of the plant cover towards the increase in its flora- and phytocoenotic diversity to the detriment of biomass formation rate. The “climatically unjustified” but sufficiently stable sub-boreal forest ecosystems were formed, as well as the early stages of buffer forest communities.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The multidimensional empirical-statistical modeling of landscape connections in the marginal-continental sector of the Pacific Ocean mega ecotone has been performed based on an experimental site in the Lower By-Amur Region. The ecology of the boreal-forest landscape of the continental margin characterizes the mature stage of evolution of the continental biosphere. The regularities and causal mechanisms of the formation of buffer forest communities typical of ecotone systems have been represented more integrally. Forests of this phenomenal buffer flora are distinguished by extremely high parameters of structural and functional development and have reached the state approaching the evolutionary climax. The previously advanced concepts of the Pacific ecotone of Northern Eurasia as a focus of evolutionary processes in the continental biosphere have been confirmed.</p> Erland G. Kolomyts Copyright (c) 2022 Erland G. Kolomyts http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-03-06 2023-03-06 5 1 213 236 10.25082/REIE.2022.01.005 Experimental investigation of gamma Stirling engine coupling to convert thermal to cooling energy in different laboratory conditions https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2022.01.004 <p>The main aim of this research is to experimentally investigate the two coupled identical ST500 gamma-type Stirling engines and convert thermal energy to cooling energy. Using a new structure and two coupled Stirling engines at different temperatures and pressures and use of biomass fuel within the 4 -8 bar average pressure range of the first engine heat source, the 1-4 bar average pressure range of the second engine heat sink, and Stirling heat engine temperature range of 480-580ºC, the effective cooling is obtained in the cooling engine. In doing tests, attempts were made to reach lower than 9 percent error results in different parts of engine, including insulation, fluid leakage, belt loosing, and measurement devices. According to the obtained results, 8 bars increase in the average pressure range of the gas in the first engine heat source, a 1 bar reduction in the average pressure range of the gas in the second engine heat sink, the increased temperature of the heat source up to 580ºC, and the use of the light operating fluid such as helium will affect the generation of cooling up to -16ºC.</p> Hamidreza Asemi Sareh Daneshgar Rahim Zahedi Copyright (c) 2022 Hamidreza Asemi, Sareh Daneshgar, Rahim Zahedi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-03 2022-11-03 5 1 200 212 10.25082/REIE.2022.01.004 Difference of rainfall-runoff models and effect on flood forecasting: A brief review https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2022.01.003 <p>Selecting a rainfall-runoff model for use in flood forecasting is not a direct decision and actually may contain the selection of more than one. There are a range of rainfall-runoff models for flow forecasting. They range in type from transfer function (empirical black box), through lumped conceptual to more physically-based distributed models. The rainfall-runoff models also are often accompanied by updating techniques for taking account of recent measurements of flow so as to improve the accuracy of model predictions in real-time. Against this variety of available modelling techniques, this study improved understanding of the most important and well known rainfall-runoff models for flood forecasting and highlighting their similarities and differences. Six models are selected in this study: the Probability Distributed Moisture (PDM) model, the Isolated Event Model (IEM), the US National Weather Service Sacramento model, the Grid Model, the Transfer Function (TF) model and the Physically Realisable Transfer Function (PRTF) model. The first three are conceptual soil moisture accounting models, with the Grid Model having a distributed formulation, whilst the TF and PRTF are “black box” time-series models. Also new model for the forecasting (e.g neural network (NN), fuzzy rule-based are reviewed. An important feature of the use of rainfall-runoff models in a real-time forecasting environment is the ability to integrate recent observations of flow in order to develop forecast performance. The available methods for forecast updating are reviewed with specific reference to state correction and error prediction techniques.</p> Safieh Javadinejad Rebwar Dara Forough Jafary Copyright (c) 2022 Safieh Javadinejad, Rebwar Dara, Forough Jafary http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 5 1 184 199 10.25082/REIE.2022.01.003 Causes and consequences of floods: flash floods, urban floods, river floods and coastal floods https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2022.01.002 <p>Undoubtedly, the flood is known as a natural disaster. But in practice, the flood is considered the most terrible natural disaster in terms of mortality and financial losses. In this regard, a worrying trend is the increasing trend of mortality and flood damage in the world in recent decades. The increase in population and assets in the floodplain the changes in hydro systems and the destructive effects of human activities have been a major cause of this trend. In this chapter, due to the importance of this natural phenomenon in the ZayandehRud basin, the general study of flood and its effective factors in creating it, based on library studies and reports, and the collection of flood statistics in the basin during a 40-year period and the damage caused by this flood, has been attempted. With the causes and factors influencing the flooding and also the use of EXCEL software for various damages caused by these floods in high risk cities of this basin, has been identified. In general, the cause of many floods in the central parts of Iran, including ZayandehRud basin, is high rainfall. The causes of these rainfall are also related to the Elenino and Lenina phenomenon, as well as the passage of low pressure systems, which after affecting a large amount of steam from the Mediterranean, affect the western parts of the province that overlooks the Zagros mountains.</p> Safieh Javadinejad Copyright (c) 2022 Safieh Javadinejad http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 5 1 173 183 10.25082/REIE.2022.01.002 Bolreal ecotone of the East-European Plain: Empirical statistical modeling https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2022.01.001 <p>The solution of multipurpose tasks of ecological forecasting may depend to a great extent&nbsp; on the results of system analysis of nature-territorial structures,&nbsp; which are most sensitive to external effects including anthropogenic.&nbsp; The&nbsp; scientific search in this direction focuses more and more attention on the natural boundaries &nbsp;– &nbsp;both individual&nbsp; and&nbsp; complex, where&nbsp; the&nbsp; most&nbsp; significant&nbsp; natural&nbsp; or anthropogenic shifts in the structure and function of geo(eco)systems&nbsp; are&nbsp; observed.&nbsp; Considering one or another natural boundary as a vector (connection,&nbsp; cascade, para-dynamical, <em>etc</em>.) landscape system&nbsp; with a clearly&nbsp; defined spatial polarization of its different properties,&nbsp; we obtain a "fast-flowing" model of&nbsp; state&nbsp; response&nbsp; and&nbsp; resistance&nbsp; of geo(eco)systems to the action of certain ecological factors.&nbsp; The study of the structural-functional organization of natural ecosystems at the geographical ecotones is also of scientific and methodical importance, which is common with geo-ecology and, in addition, most important for regional and local landscape-ecological forecasts. Geographical ecotones are the most sensitive (and, in this sense, the least stable) fragments of natural-territorial mosaic. The boreal biogeographic ecotone of the Volga River basin is described as an example for considering the theoretical and scientific-methodical problems of geographical zonality: the fundamental ecological-geographical conception at the present-day stage of biosphere evolution associated with the global anthropogenic impact on the climate. A conception on regional bioclimatic system, characterizing climate-genic exo-dynamic characteristics of soil-vegetation "core" of natural com-plexes is presented. It can survey as a scientific-methodological base of paleogeographical reconstructions and landscape-ecological forecasts. Climate nishes of the phytocoenological and soil’ units are the elements of bioclimatic system and the forms of display of soil-vegatation cover’ hydrothermal stability during the changing climate. Zonal boundaries are considered as modern spatial analogs of the future landscape changes in time. The work dwells on the basic "trigger" mechanisms of zonal boundary formation at the interaction of background climatic signals and their refraction by local (mainly lithe-genic) factors.&nbsp;</p> Erland G. Kolomyts Copyright (c) 2022 Erland G. Kolomyts http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 5 1 156 172 10.25082/REIE.2022.01.001 Runoff coefficient estimation for various catchment surfaces https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2021.01.005 <p>The definition of runoff coefficient is the portion of rainfall that turn into direct runoff throughout an occurrence, and it is a significant perception in engineering hydrology and is extensively applied for design and as a diagnostic variable to show runoff creation in catchments. Event runoff coefficients may also be applied in event‐based developed flood frequency models that measure flood frequencies from rainfall frequencies and are valuable for recognizing the flood frequency controls in a specific hydrologic or climatic regime. Only a few previous studies worked on hydrological systems and processes deeply at catchment scale. Also in many catchments because of lacking data sets, analysis of land use change and water management and risks causes uncertainty in predictions of hydrological processes can be decreased. This problem is more important for predicting hydrology of ungauged basins in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to review predicting hydrology of ungauged basins.</p> Safieh Javadinejad Rebwar Dara Neda Dolatabadi Copyright (c) 2022 Safieh Javadinejad, Rebwar Dara, Neda Dolatabadi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-16 2022-03-16 5 1 145 155 10.25082/REIE.2021.01.005 Municipal solid waste and risk from 1970 to 2020 https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2021.01.003 <p>Risks have been addressed from at least 5 different approaches, including environmental, health, occupational, chemical and technological standpoints, each using their own definitions, which limits the design of public policies focused on improving MSW management. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the concept of risk is used in different investigations in the field of MSW. The factors that influence these concepts are also determined, including the spatial context of risk assessments. The search focused on 73 scientific papers from journal pages to specialized search engines, such as Google Scholar or ScienceDirect, published between 1970 and 2020. Throughout this period, many changes, mostly brought about by economic and health crises, can be seen. A significant risk increase is observed in the 1980s with a marked rebound in the early 1990s, which continues throughout the following decades. Risks increased drastically in parallel with unemployment and mortality in 2020, due to the global pandemic, which modified waste composition, since protective equipment against coronavirus was mixed with household waste.</p> Juan Antonio Araiza-Aguilar Silke Cram-Heydrich Naxhelli Ruiz-Rivera Oralia Oropeza-Orozco María del Pilar Fernández-Lomelín María Neftalí Rojas-Valencia Copyright (c) 2021 Juan Antonio Araiza-Aguilar, Silke Cram-Heydrich, Naxhelli Ruiz-Rivera, Oralia Oropeza-Orozco, María del Pilar Fernández-Lomelín, María Neftalí Rojas-Valencia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-10-29 2021-10-29 5 1 138 144 10.25082/REIE.2021.01.003 A review on homogeneity across hydrological regions https://www.syncsci.com/journal/REIE/article/view/REIE.2021.01.004 <p>Hydrologic classification is the method of scientifically arranging streams, rivers or catchments into groups with the most similarity of flow regime features and use it to recognize hydrologically homogenous areas. Previous homogeneous attempts were depended on&nbsp; overabundance of hydrologic metrics that considers features of variability of flows that are supposed to be meaningful in modelling physical progressions in the basins. This research explains the techniques of hydrological homogeneity through comparing past and existing methods; &nbsp;in addition it provides a practical framework for hydrological homogeneity that illustrates serious elements of the classification process.</p> Safieh Javadinejad Copyright (c) 2021 safieh javadinejad http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 5 1 124 137 10.25082/REIE.2021.01.004