Main Article Content
Providing fresh water suitable for drinking and farming and living organisms in the ecosystem is essential. To evaluate water quality, qualitative indicators are often employed for managing water resources and water quality protection and pollution abatement. This study evaluated the quality of Borkhar basin water resources using three different water quality indices, including National Institutes of Health Water Quality Index (NIHWQI) having nine parameters, the Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) having eight parameters, and the Canadian Water Quality Indices (CWQI) with 22 main parameters. Using data for a period of 30 years, NIHWQI, OWQI and CWQI were used. To analyze water quality of the entire basin for current and future time. Results showed that water quality of the basin was in a very moderate range according to NSFWQI, and was in a very bad range accordingly to OWQI. Water quality forecasts showed that future water quality would be bad, based on OWQI and moderate based on NSFWQI, whereas based on CWQI, it will be good for drinking, and bad for aquatic animals, recreation, irrigation, and livestock use.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Li N, Yamazaki Y, Roeber V, et al. Probabilistic mapping of storm-induced coastal inundation for climate change adaptation. Coastal Engineering, 2018, 1(133): 126-141. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC33B..01L/abstract
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Impacts of Extreme Events on Water Availability. Annals of Geographical Studies, 2019, 2(3): 16-24.
- Javadinejad S, Hannah D, Ostad-Ali-Askari K, et al. The impact of future climate change and human activities on hydro-climatological drought, analysis and projections: using CMIP5 climate model simulations. Water Conservation Science and Engineering, 2019, 4(2-3): 71-88.
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Health impacts of extreme events. Safety in Extreme Environments, 2020, 2(2): 171-181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42797-020-00016-8
- Javadinejad S, Ostad-Ali-Askari K, Singh VP, et al. Reliable, Resilient, and Sustainable Water Management in Different Water Use Sectors. Water Conservation Science and Engineering, 2019, 4(2-3): 133-148.
- Javadinejad S, Eslamian S, Ostad-Ali-Askari K, et al. Relationship Between Climate Change, Natural Disaster, and Resilience in Rural and Urban Societies, 2019.
- Javadinejad S. Vulnerability of water resources to climate change and human impact: scenario analysis of the Zayandeh Rud river basin in Iran (Doctoral dissertation, University of Birmingham). 2016.
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Climate Change Scenarios and Effects on Snow-Melt Runoff. Civil Engineering Journal, 2020, 6(9): 1715-1725. https://doi.org/10.28991/cej-2020-03091577
- Javadinejad S and Jafary RDF. Characteristics on Spatial and Temporal Varia-tions of Landslide in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Journal of Geographical Research, 2019, 2(4): 7-14. https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v2i4.1818
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Analysis and prioritization the effective factors on increasing farmers resilience under climate change and drought, Agricultural research, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-020-00516-w
- Javadinejad S, Dara R, Hamed MH, et al. Analysis of Gray Water Recycling by Reuse of Industrial Waste Water for Agricultural and Irrigation Purposes. Journal of Geographical Research, 2020, 3(2): 20-24. https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2056
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Gray Water Measurement and Feasibility of Retrieval Using Innova-tive Technology and Application in Water Resources Management in Isfahan-Iran. Journal of Geographical Research, 2020, 3(2): 11-19. https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.1997
- Javadinejad S, Eslamian S and Ostad-Ali-Askari K. Investigation of monthly and seasonal changes of methane gas with respect to climate change using satellite data. Applied Water Science, 2019, 9(8): 180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-1067-9
- Javadinejad S, Eslamian S, Ostad-Ali-Askari K, et al. Embankments. In: Bobrowsky P., Marker B. (eds) Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Cham. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12127-7_105-1
- Javadinejad S, Ostad-Ali-Askari K and Jafary F. Using simulation model to determine the regulation and to optimize the quantity of chlorine injection in water distribution networks. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2019, 5(3): 1015-1023. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-019-00587-x1
- Javadinejad S, Eslamian S and Ostad-Ali-Askari. The Analysis of the Most Important Climatic Parameters Affecting Performance of Crop Variability in a Changing Climate. International journal of hydrology science and technology, 2018.
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Evaluation of hydro-meteorological drought indices for characterizing historical and future droughts and their impact on groundwater. Resources Environment and Information Engineering, 2020, 2(1): 71-83. https://doi.org/10.25082/REIE.2020.01.003
- Javadinejad S. The 2008 Morpeth Flood: Continuous Simulation Model for the Wansbeck Catchment. Ebook, Grin publication, 2011.
- Mirramazani SM, Javadinejad S, Eslamian S, et al. The Origin of River Sediments, the Associated Dust and Climate Change. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 2017, 8(2): 149-172.
- Mirramazani SM, Javadinejad S, Eslamian S, et al. A Feasibility Study of Urban Green Space Design in the Form of Smart Arid Landscaping with Rainwater Harvesting. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2019, 201: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajeassp.201.1-9
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Analysis and prioritization the effective factors on increasing farmers resilience under climate change and drought. Agricultural research, 2020, 9(4): 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-020-00516-w
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Modelling groundwater level fluctuation in an Indian coastal aquifer. Water SA, 2020, 46(4): 665-671.
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Investigation of the effect of climate change on heat waves. Resources Environment and Information Engineering, 2020, 2(1): 54-60. https://doi.org/10.25082/reie.2020.01.001
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Examining the association between dust and sediment and evaluating the impact of climate change on dust and providing adaptation. Resources Environment and Information Engineering, 2020, 2(1): 6-10. https://doi.org/10.25082/reie.2020.01.002
- Javadinejad S, Dara R, Jafary F, et al. Climate change management strategies to handle and cope with extreme weather and climate events. Journal of Geographical Research, 2020, 3(4): 22-28. https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i4.2324
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. How groundwater level can predict under the effect of climate change by using artificial neural networks of NARX. Resources Environment and Information Engineering, 2020, 2(1): 90-99. https://doi.org/10.25082/REIE.2020.01.005
- Javadinejad S, Hannah DH, Krause SK, et al. The impacts of climate change on energy-water systems and economic analysis. The Iraqi Geological Journal, 2020, 53(2F): 1-17.
- Javadinejad S, Hannah D, Krause S, et al. Building socio-hydrological resilience “improving capacity for building a socio hydrological system resilience”. Safety in Extreme Environments, 2020, 2(3): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42797-020-00024-8
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Potential impact of climate change on temperature and humidity related human health effects during extreme condition. Safety in Extreme Environments, 2020, 2(2): 189-195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42797-020-00021-x
- Javadinejad S, Ostad-Ali-Askari K and Eslamian S. Application of Multi-Index Decision Analysis to Management Scenarios Considering Climate Change Prediction in the Zayandeh Rud River Basin. Water Conservation Science and Engineering, 2019, 4(1): 53-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41101-019-00068-3
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Taking Urgent Actions to Combat Climate Change Impacts. Annals of Geographical Studies, 2019, 2(4): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.10315508
- Dara RN, Jirjees S, Fatah KK, et al. Climatic Parameters Analysis of Koysinjaq Meteorological Station, Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq. Iraqi Geological Journal, 54(1A): 99-109.
- Kim Z and Singh VP. Assessment of environmental flow requirements by entropy-based multi-criteria decision. Water Resources Management, 2014, 28(2): 459-474. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-013-0493-y
- McMahon TA and Finlayson BL. Droughts and anti-droughts: the low flow hydrology of Australian rivers’. Freshwater Biology, 2003, 48(7): 1147-1160. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2003.01098.x
- McManamay RA, Bevelhimer MS and Frimpong EA. Associations among hydrologic classifications and fish traits to support environmental flow standards. Ecohydrology, 2015, 8(3): 460-479. https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1517
- Javadinejad S, Dara R, Jafary F, et al. A Review on Homogeneity across Hydrological Regions. Biogeneric Science and Research, 2021, 7(4): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.46718/JBGSR.2021.07.000173
- Javadinejad S, Dara R, Jafary F, et al. Modeling the Effects of Climate Change on Probability of Maximum Rainfall and On Variations in Storm Water in the Zayandeh Rud River. Biogeneric Science and Research, 2021, 7(1): 1-9. https://doi.org/10.46718/JBGSR.2021.07.000174
- Javadinejad S, Hannah D, Krause S, et al. Droughts and the Impacts of Dry Spells in North of Iraq. Research in Ecology, 2021, 3(1): 59-69. https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v3i1.2865
- Aazami J, Esmaili-Sari A, Abdoli A, et al. Monitoring and assessment of water health quality in the Tajan River, Iran using physicochemical, fish and macro invertebrates indices. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 2015, 13(1): 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40201-015-0186-y
- Abba SI, Said YS and Bashir A. Assessment of Water Quality Changes at Two Location of Yamuna River Using the National Sanitation Foundation of Water Quality (NSFWQI). Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology, 2015, 2(8): 730-33.
- Alexakis D, Tsihrintzis VA, Tsakiris G, et al. Suitability of water quality indices for application in lakes in the Mediterranean. Water resources management, 2016, 30(5): 1621-1633. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-016-1240-y
- Al-Adamat R. Modelling Surface Water Susceptibility to Pollution Using GIS. Journal of Geographic Information System, 2017, 9(3): 293. https://doi.org/10.4236/jgis.2017.93018
- Javadinejad S, Dara R and Jafary F. Climate change simulation and impacts on extreme events of rainfall and storm water in the Zayandeh Rud Catchment. Resources Environment and Information Engineering, 2021, 3(1): 100-110. https://doi.org/10.25082/REIE.2021.01.001