Open Access

Peer-reviewed

Research Article

Main Article Content

Vered Ben Davidcorresponding author
Anwar Khatib

Abstract

Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is a key to the child-parent relationship. It reflects parents’ self-perception of their ability to perform parenting tasks successfully and a high level of parental self-efficacy is associated with positive child outcomes. The literature on cultural differences regarding PSE is scant. This study applied a cultural perspective and examined differences between Arab and Jewish mothers with regard to PSE and associated factors such as marital satisfaction, social support, wellbeing and stress. Based on a sample of 170 married mothers in Israel (age in years: M = 30.14 , SD = 6.1 ), it revealed that Arab mothers experienced a higher degree of PSE, marital satisfaction and wellbeing, as well as lower stress, than Jewish mothers. PSE among Arab mothers was predicted by marital satisfaction and stress. Among Jewish mothers, PSE was predicted by stress and wellbeing as well as financial indicators. The paper discusses the findings from a cultural perspective, focusing on the experience of parenting in an Arab, collective, traditional and patriarchic society compared to parenting in a Jewish, individualistic, liberal society. The study concludes that it is important to consider the cultural context of parenting to the sense of parental efficacy and to understand the cultural norms and values of individuals whose parenting capacity comes under assessment. Based on the findings it was suggested that family therapy or spousal therapy may provide benefit to Arab mothers who report a low level of PSE. For Jewish mothers, alleviating financial hardship and providing material help could provide similar benefits, in addition to lowering the mother’s level of stress. Limitations of the study as well as future studies directions were also discussed.

Keywords
parental self-efficacy, parenting, cultural context of parenting, Jewish mothers, Arab mothers

Article Details

How to Cite
David, V., & Khatib, A. (2021). Differences between Israeli Jewish and Arabs mothers in parental self-efficacy: A cultural perspective. Social Work and Social Welfare, 3(1), 121-133. https://doi.org/10.25082/SWSW.2021.01.005

References

  1. Shechory-Bitton M, Ben David S and Sommerfeld E. Effect of ethnicity on parenting styles and attitudes toward violence among Jewish and Arab Muslim Israeli mothers: An intergenerational approach. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2015, 46(4): 508-524. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022115576001
  2. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1997.
  3. Cˇ rncˇec R, Barnett B and Matthey S. Development of an instrument to assess perceived self-efficacy in the parents of infants. Research in Nursing Health, 2008, 31(5): 442-453. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.20271
  4. Troutman B, Moran TE, Arndt S, et al. Development of parenting self-efficacy in mothers of infants with high negative emotionality. Infant Mental Health Journal, 2012, 33: 45-54. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20332
  5. Coleman P and Karraker KH. Maternal self-efficacy beliefs, competence in parenting, and toddlers’ behavior and developmental status. Infant Mental Health Journal, 2003, 24: 126-148. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.10048
  6. Giallo R, Kienhuis M, Treyvaud K, et al. A Psychometric evaluation of the parent self-efficacy in managing the transition to school scale. Australian. Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 2008, 8: 36-48.
  7. Albanese AM, Russo GR and Geller PA. The role of parental self-efficacy in parent and child wellbeing: A systematic review of associated outcomes. Child: Care, Health & Development, 2019, 45(3): 333-363. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12661
  8. Holloway SD, Suzuki S, Kim S, et al. Development and cross-national validation of a revised version of the Berkeley Parenting Self-efficacy Scale. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2019, 47: 309- 320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.12.016
  9. Sanders MR andWoolley ML. The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: Implications for parent training. Child: Care, Health & Development, 2005, 31(1): 65-73. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2005.00487.x
  10. Ngai FW and Chan SWC. Psychosocial factors and maternal wellbeing: An exploratory path analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2011, 48(6): 725-731. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.11.002
  11. Knauth DG. Predictors of parental sense of competence for the couple during the transition to parenthood. Research in Nursing & Health, 2000, 23: 496-509. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-240X(200012)23:6h496::AID-NUR8i3.0.CO;2-1
  12. Silver EJ, Heneghan AM, Bauman LJ, et al. The relationship of depressive symptoms to parenting competence and social support in inner-city mothers of young children. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 2006, 10: 105-112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-005-0024-4
  13. Yan MC. Exploring cultural tensions in cross-cultural social work practice. Social Work, 2008, 53(4): 317-328. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/53.4.317
  14. Dwairy M and Achoui M. Introduction to three cross-regional research studies on parenting styles, individuation, and mental health in Arab societies. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2006, 37: 221-229. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022106286921
  15. Dwairy M and Achoui M. Parental control: A second cross-cultural research on parenting and psychological adjustment of children. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 2010, 19(1): 16-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-009-9334-2
  16. Le HN, Ceballo R, Chao R, et al. Excavating culture: Disentangling ethnic differences from contextual influences in parenting. Applied Development Science, 2008, 12(4): 163-175. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888690802387880
  17. Weisner TS. Culture, development, and diversity: Expectable pluralism, conflict, and similarity. Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology, 2009, 37(2): 181-196. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1352.2009.01037.x
  18. Steinberg L, Dornbusch SM and Brown BB. Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement: An ecological perspective. American Psychologist, 1992, 47(6): 723. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.723
  19. Steinberg L, Lamborn SD, Dornbusch SM, et al. Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 1992, 63(5): 1266-1281. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131532
  20. Lamborn SD, Mounts NS, Steinberg L, et al. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 1991, 62(5): 1049-1065. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131151
  21. Ben-Arieh A and Haj-Yahia MM. The ”geography” of child maltreatment in Israel: findings from a national data set if cases reported to the social services. Child Abuse & Neglect, 2006, 30: 991-1003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.02.014
  22. Khoury-Kassabri M. Attitudes of Arab and Jewish mothers towards punitive and non-punitive discipline methods. Child & Family Social Work, 2010, 15(2): 135-144. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2009.00667.x
  23. Khoury-Kassabri M and Straus MA. Discipline methods used by mothers: The contribution of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and child’s characteristics. Child Indicators Research, 2011, 4(1): 45-57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-010-9077-z
  24. Khoury-Kassabri M, Attar-Schwartz S and Zur H. Understanding the mediating role of corporal punishment in the association between maternal stress, efficacy, co-parenting and children’s adjustment difficulties among Arab mothers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 2014, 38(6): 1073-1082. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.04.009
  25. Fass MN, Khoury-Kassabri M and Koot HM. Associations between Arab mothers’ self-efficacy and parenting attitudes and their children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors: Gender differences and the mediating role of corporal punishment. Child Indicators Research, 2018, 11(4): 1369-1387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-017-9480-9
  26. Haj-Yahia MM. Toward culturally sensitive intervention with Arab families in Israel. Contemporary Family Therapy, 1995, 17: 429-447. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02249355
  27. Haj-Yahia MM. Wife abuse and battering in the sociocultural context of Arab society. Family Process, 2000, 39: 237-255. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2000.39207.x
  28. Cohen A. An examination of the relationship between commitments and culture among five cultural groups of Israeli teachers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2007, 38: 34-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022106295440
  29. Mikulincer M, Weller A and Florian V. Sense of closeness to parents and family rules: a study of Arab and Jewish youth in Israel. International Journal of Psychology, 1993, 28: 323-335. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207599308246925
  30. Al-Krenawi A. Socio-Cultural and Political Aspects of Social work with Arabs in Israel. Reflections Narratives of Professional Helping, 2011, 17(4): 14-31.
  31. Haj-Yahia MM. Contextualizing interventions with battered women in collectivist societies: Issues and controversies. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 2011, 16: 331-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2011.04.005
  32. Sabbah-Karkaby M and Stier H. Links between education and age at marriage among Palestinian women in Israel: Changes over time. Studies in Family Planning, 2017, 48(1): 23-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/sifp.12015
  33. Sinai-Glazer H and Peled E. The perceptions of motherhood among family social workers in social services departments in Israel. British Journal of Social Work, 2017, 47(5): 1482-1499. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcw111
  34. Bianchi SM and Milkie M. Work and family research in the first decade of the 21st century. Journal of Marriage & Family, 2011, 72: 705-725. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00726.x
  35. Offer S and Bear L. Testing the social exclusivity of marriage thesis in the context of high familism: Do social involvement and support vary by marital status in Israel? Families Relationships & Societies, 2019, 1: 1-18.
  36. Abu-Baker K and Azaiza F. Strategies for closing the educational gaps among Palestinian couples in Israel. Journal of Women of the Middle East & the Islamic World, 2010, 8: 154-180. https://doi.org/10.1163/156920810X529930
  37. Johnston C and Mash EJ. A measure of parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1989, 18(2): 167-175. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp1802_8
  38. Veit C and Ware J. The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 1983, 51: 730-742. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.5.730
  39. Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, et al. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1988, 52(1): 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2
  40. Pearlin LI and Schooler C. The structure of coping. Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 1978, 19: 2-21. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136319
  41. Fowers BJ and Olson DH. ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale: A brief research and clinical tool. Journal of Family psychology, 1993, 7(2): 176. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.7.2.176
  42. Yashiv E and Kasir N. Patterns of labor force participation among Israeli Arabs. Israel Economic Review, 2011, 9: 53-101.
  43. Meler T. Money, power, and inequality within marriage among Palestinian families in Israel. The Sociological Review, 2019, 68(3): 623-640. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038026119881093
  44. Meler T. The Palestinian family in Israel: Simultaneous trends. Marriage & Family Review, 2017, 53: 781-810. https://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2017.1359810