Background: Sleep has an impact on daily life. Particularly among adolescents with IBD, adequate sleep seems to be important, as the disease itself and the associated symptoms can cause distress and impair daytime functioning. However, often parental and youth reports differ regarding perceived sleep problems of adolescents. Besides sleep problems, depression and anxiety are often prominent in young IBD patients. To date, the interplay between sleep, anxiety/depression symptoms and IBD is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (1) evaluate sleep problems in adolescents suffering from IBD, (2) compare adolescents’ sleep quality and impairments according to self- and parental reports, and (3) investigate the interaction between IBD symptomatology, emotional problems and sleep disturbances.
Methods: 29 adolescents (age 10 - 22; M = 14.44 , SD = 1.78 ) with IBD and their parents took part in the study. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires concerning sleep, emotional problems, and IBD symptomatology.
Results: Especially overtiredness, insomnia symptoms, and nightmares play a prominent role regarding sleep problems in youths. Self-rated sleep problems and parental ratings were inconsistent, particularly for nightmares (Z = -2.12; p = 0.034). However, other ratings concerning emotional problems and sleep, especially anxiety and nightmares, were significantly related(r = 0.426, p = 0.034), even though we found no mediation effect for the association between IBD, nightmares and anxiety.
Discussion: The present study revealed the importance of sleep and emotional well-being for adolescents suffering from IBD. Moreover, it became clear that the role of anxiety in youths suffering from IBD and sleep problems is not sufficiently answered yet. Not only emotional behavior but also sleep should be addressed when diagnosing IBD or during treatment of IBD. In addition, these results show the need for further investigation regarding the differences between parental and self-reports concerning sleep problems in young IBD patients.