Open Access

Peer-reviewed

Review

Main Article Content

Modeste Kameni Nematchouacorresponding author

Abstract

With more than 8 million confirmed cases, and more than four hundred and thirty thousand deaths declared to date worldwide, the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is recognized as one of the deadliest pandemics that the humanity has known in recent years. So far, although this disease has been declared as an invisible enemy by many scientists and politicians, its origin remains without explanation more reliable and reassuring by the scientific community. As a result, the following questions remain without explanation. Can this pandemic be considered a warning to humanity? When will the end of this pandemic come? Has it become a matter of industrial lobbies as said some people? The main purpose of this research is to analyse some research related to the recently published Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in order to offer some answers to these questions. It emerges from this analysis that the most reliable solution to overcome this pandemic is to disclose the results of the progress of this pandemic by the scientific, and to multiply public awareness campaigns.

Keywords
coronavirus

Article Details

How to Cite
Nematchoua, M. (2020). Coronavirus covid-2019: Is this really an invisible enemy or a warning to humanity?. Health and Environment, 1(1), 48-61. https://doi.org/10.25082/HE.2020.02.001

References

  1. UC DavisMagazine, Summer 2006: Epidemics on the Horizon. Accessed May28, 2020. http://magazinearchive.ucdavis.edu
  2. Accessed May 28, 2020. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/307499_1/coronavirus-chinas-first-confirmed-covid-19-case-traced-back
  3. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet, 2020, 395(10223): 497-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
  4. World Health Organization (WHO), 2020. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Accessed 14 May 2020.
  5. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Accessed on April 30, 2020. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/coronavirus
  6. Household cleaners and disinfectants can cause health problems when not used properly. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (Accessed on May 30, 2020). https://twitter.com/cdcgov/status/1253742258853199872?lang=en
  7. New coronavirus stable for hours on surfaces. National Institutes of Health. (Accessed on May 30, 2020). https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/03/20031715_0116.htm
  8. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. The New England Journal of Medicine, 2020, 382(16): 1564-1567. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2004973
  9. Novel Coronavirus - Information for Clinicians. Australian Government Dept of Health. (Accessed on May 30, 2020). https://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/Articles/A_E/Coronavirus
  10. Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  11. Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine, 2020, 8(5): 475-481. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5
  12. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al. ”Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet, 2020, 395(10223): 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
  13. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet, 2020, 395(10223): 497-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
  14. Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 2020, 55(3): 105924. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924
  15. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019. 16-24 February 2020.
  16. Zheng YY, Ma YT, Zhang JY, et al. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 2020, 17(5): 259-260. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-020-0360-5
  17. Xydakis MS, Dehgani-Mobaraki P, Holbrook EH, et al. Smell and taste dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Lancet, 2020, 20: 1015-1016. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30293-0
  18. Rapid Expert Consultation Update on SARS-CoV-2 Surface Stability and Incubation for the COVID-19 Pandemic. The National Academies Press. 27 March 2020. doi:10.17226/25763. ISBN 978-0-309-67610-6. https://doi.org/10.17226/25763
  19. Interim Guidance: Public Health Management of cases and contacts associated with novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in the community. BC Centre for Disease Control. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  20. Ferguson NM, Laydon D, Nedjati-Gilani G, et al. Report 9: Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand (Report). Imperial College London. Retrieved 25 March 2020. https://doi.org/10.25561/77482
  21. Lai CC, Liu YH, Wang CY, et al. Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2): Facts and myths. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, 2020, 53(3): 404-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.012
  22. FurukawaNW, Brooks JT and Sobel J. Evidence Supporting Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 While Presymptomatic or Asymptomatic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2020, 26(7): e1-e6. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.201595
  23. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet, 2020, 395(10223): 497-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
  24. Byass P. Eco-epidemiological assessment of the COVID-19 epidemic in China, January–February 2020. Global Health Action, 2020, 13(1): 1760490. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.29.20046565
  25. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet, 2020, 395(10223): 1054-1062. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
  26. Izaguirre-Torres D and Siche R. Covid-19 disease will cause a global catastrophe in terms of mental health: A hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 2020, 143: 109846. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109846
  27. Lansiaux E, P´eba¨y PP, Picard JL, et al. COVID-19: betathalassemia subjects immunised? Medical Hypotheses, 2020, 142: 109827. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202004.0349.v1
  28. Rowan NJ and Laffey JG. Challenges and solutions for addressing critical shortage of supply chain for personal and protective equipment (PPE) arising from Coronavirus disease (COVID19) pandemic - Case study from the Republic of Ireland. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, 725: 138532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138532
  29. Liu J, Zhou J, Yao J, et al. Impact of meteorological factors on the COVID-19 transmission: A multicity study in China. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, 726: 138513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138513
  30. Vecchio S, Ramella R, Drago A, et al. COVID19 pandemic and people with opioid use disorder: innovation to reduce risk. Psychiatry Research, 2020, 289: 113047. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113047
  31. Merindol N, P´epin G, Marchand C, et al. SARS-CoV-2 detection by direct rRT-PCR without RNA extraction. Journal of Clinical Virology, 2020, 128: 104423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104423
  32. Moghanibashi-Mansourieh A. Assessing the anxiety level of Iranian general population during COVID-19 outbreak. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 2020, 51: 102076. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102076
  33. Peters MC, Sajuthi S, Deford P, et al. COVID-19 Related Genes in Sputum Cells in Asthma: Relationship to Demographic Features and Corticosteroids. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2020, 202(1): 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202003-0821OC
  34. Dai WC, Zhang HW, Yu J, et al. CT Imaging and Differential Diagnosis of COVID-19. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, 2020: 846537120913033. https://doi.org/10.1177/0846537120913033
  35. Mahmoudi M. Emerging Biomolecular Testing to Assess the Risk of Mortality fromCOVID-19 Infection. Molecularpharmaceutics, 2020: 0c00371. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.0c00371
  36. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet, 2020, 395(10223): 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
  37. Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Kruger N, et al. Polymorphisms in dipeptidyl peptidase4 reduce host cell entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Emerg Microbes Infect, 2020, 9: 155-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1713705
  38. Raj VS, Mou H, Smits SL, et al. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus- EMC. Nature, 2013, 495: 251-254. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12005
  39. Papi M and Caracciolo G. Principal component analysis of personalized biomolecular corona data for early disease detection. Nano Today, 2018, 21: 14-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2018.03.001
  40. Palchetti S, Caputo D, Digiacomo L, et al. Protein corona fingerprints of liposomes: New opportunities for targeted drug delivery and early detection in pancreatic cancer. Pharmaceutics, 2019, 11(1): 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11010031
  41. Monde L. accessed on June 02, 2020. https://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2020/04/09/coronavirus-dans-le-monde-les-pays-europeens-exhortes-a-surmonter-leurs-divisions-face-aux-consequences-economiques60360583244.html
  42. L’OBS. accessed on June 2, 2020. https://www.nouvelobs.com/coronavirus-de-wuhan/20200_409.OBS27303/le-coronavirus-provoque-les-pires-consequences-economiques-depuis-1929-previent-le-fmi.html
  43. International Labor Organization. Accessed on June 2, 2020. https://www.ilo.org/global/lang-en/index.htm
  44. Myllyvirta L. Analysis: Coronavirus has temporarily reduced China’s CO2 emissions by a quarter. (Accessed on June2, 2020).
  45. McMahon J. Study: Coronavirus Lockdown Likely Saved 77,000 Lives In China Just By Reducing Pollution. (Accessed on June20, 2020).
  46. Sauter MB. 10 years later, these 28 US cities never recovered from the Great Recession, 2018. https://eu.usatoday.com/story/money/economy/2018/10/12/cities-never-recovered-great-recession/38094325
  47. Hadler JL, Yousey-Hindes K, P´erez A, et al. Influenza- Related Hospitalizations and Poverty Levels - United States, 2010-2012. Mmwr Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 2016, 65: 101-105. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6505a1
  48. Blow CM. Social Distancing Is a Privilege 2020. accessed on June 10, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/05/opinion/coronavirus-social-distancing.html
  49. Noppert GA and Clarke P. The Modern Profile of Tuberculosis: Developing the TB Social Survey to understand contemporary social patterns in tuberculosis. Public Health Nurs, 2018, 35: 48-55. https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12372
  50. Youtube. Accessed on June 06, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BdKKssKdaN0
  51. Zhao J, Yang Y, Huang H, et al. Relationship between the ABO Blood Group and the COVID-19 Susceptibility. medRxiv,2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.11.20031096