The main objective of this research is to analyse and compare the photochemical ozone production coming from one neighbourhood initially located in Belgium. Which the same neighbourhood design is applied in150 countries, by applying four parameters adapted to each country such as: energy mix, local climate, building materials and occupants’ mobility. In addition, this research evaluates the induced environmental costs of the neighbourhood over a life cycle of 100 years in some regions located on the five continents, and examines the effect of photovoltaic panel on the photochemical ozone concentration. This environmental impact was evaluated by the Pleiades ACV simulation software under four phases (construction, use, renovation, and demolition), before being translated into environmental costs. The results show that in the case of sustainable neighbourhoods, the photochemical ozone production is 14.3% higher in the Low than High income countries. Photovoltaic panel has a significant effect on the photochemical ozone production, indeed, it allows to reduce up to 8.6% of this one. By 2030, if each of the 150 studied countries, increases up to 30% the renewable energy rate in its own energy mix, to the current examples of countries such as: Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Costa Rica, DRC, Nepal, Tajikistan ..., so, Photochemical Ozone Production will decrease from 32% to 45% depending on the region. An average of 56% of photochemical ozone potential (POP) is produced during the operational phase of the neighbourhood.
Indoor air is contaminated by numerous pollutants, which impact human health, comfort and productivity. These pollutants have various indoor sources such as building materials, furniture, combustion appliances or tobacco smoke. However, the pollution also comes from outside. In urban area, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted into the atmosphere can reach alarming levels. These traffic-related pollutants, which seriously impact the global environment and human health, can infiltrate inside buildings. Therefore, limiting the amount of breathable NOx in outdoor and indoor environments is an important priority for the modern society. The photocatalytic process has attracted particular attention in the last two decades and has proved to be efficient to reduce the concentration of NOx. However, further work has to be conducted to assess its efficiency in real indoor environments. The purpose of this paper was to report on the indoor air quality in an open space office in Manchester, UK. Focus was made on nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The indoor concentrations of both gases were monitored from 14 January 2019 to 7 April 2019. During this period, a photocatalytic coating was applied to a part of the indoor wall. The influence of this coating on the level of NOx was assessed by comparing the indoor concentrations before and after the application. An attention was paid to the correlation between outdoor and indoor pollution and to the effect of other parameters such as temperature, humidity, pressure and O3 concentration. The results showed that the photocatalytic process led to a decrease in the NOx concentration. The likelihood to find concentrations above 35 ppb for NO and 7.5 ppb for NO2 was clearly reduced after the coating application.
Climate change effect can be either positive or negative on the human . Its impact on the energy consumption of a country for space heating and cooling purposes depends on the current and future regional climate, the required thermal comfort inside buildings, and the technical building features such as thermal insulation quality and occupants’ habits. The aim of this research is to study the variation of the air temperature in several regions of Madagascar and then to simulate the impact of climate change on the need for energy consumption in household cooling and heating systems using degree-day index. The results showed that the temperature changes more rapidly in the rainy season than in the dry season. The energy demand for cooling is constantly growing in all the regions of Madagascar. Besides, an average around of 526 degree-day is expected in several regions of island by 2050. In the same year, air temperature is estimated to reach up to 2°C.
Tricycles form an important part of the intra-city transport system, following the ban placed on motorcycles in Maiduguri, Nigeria. However, no previous studies have been conducted to assess the occurrence of accidents among them. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of road accidents, near-misses, and their associated factors among commercial tricycle drivers in Maiduguri. A cross-sectional study was conducted among registered commercial tricycle drivers in Maiduguri who had been in the business for at least a year. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews, using a structured questionnaire, and was subjected to bivariate and multivariate analysis using SPSS. The prevalence of road accidents and near misses were 46% and 50.3% respectively. Only six (3.9%) of respondents who had experienced a near-miss mentioned that they occurred while they were fully awake; during clear weather; and on a smooth, broad, and non-congested road. All the others had experienced the near miss under an unfavourable weather, road, and/or while feeling sleepy. In the bivariate analysis, only psycho-active substance use (χ2=3.941; df=1; p=0.047) and having experienced more than one near miss (χ2=31.807; df=1; p<0.001) were significantly associated with having an accidents. However, in the multivariate analysis, having experienced more than one near miss was the only factor which significantly predicted having an accident (OR=2.89 95% CI: 1.64-5.09; p<0.001). There is a need to conduct further intervention studies to determine the effectiveness of intervention measures in reducing accident rates among these tricycle drivers.
With more than 8 million confirmed cases, and more than four hundred and thirty thousand deaths declared to date worldwide, the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is recognized as one of the deadliest pandemics that the humanity has known in recent years. So far, although this disease has been declared as an invisible enemy by many scientists and politicians, its origin remains without explanation more reliable and reassuring by the scientific community. As a result, the following questions remain without explanation. Can this pandemic be considered a warning to humanity? When will the end of this pandemic come? Has it become a matter of industrial lobbies as said some people? The main purpose of this research is to analyse some research related to the recently published Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in order to offer some answers to these questions. It emerges from this analysis that the most reliable solution to overcome this pandemic is to disclose the results of the progress of this pandemic by the scientific, and to multiply public awareness campaigns.