Climate change effect can be either positive or negative on the human . Its impact on the energy consumption of a country for space heating and cooling purposes depends on the current and future regional climate, the required thermal comfort inside buildings, and the technical building features such as thermal insulation quality and occupants’ habits. The aim of this research is to study the variation of the air temperature in several regions of Madagascar and then to simulate the impact of climate change on the need for energy consumption in household cooling and heating systems using degree-day index. The results showed that the temperature changes more rapidly in the rainy season than in the dry season. The energy demand for cooling is constantly growing in all the regions of Madagascar. Besides, an average around of 526 degree-day is expected in several regions of island by 2050. In the same year, air temperature is estimated to reach up to 2°C.