Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

Exposure, geochemical, and spatial distribution patterns of an oil spill in parts of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Main Article Content

Davidson E. Egirani corresponding author
Nabila Shehata
Ifeoma Mary Ugwu
Alfred Opukumo
Desmond Eteh


Large-scale and small-scale spilt oil is as old as exploration activities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. There is a need to provide the exposure, geochemical and spatial characteristics in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria because of the effects of the spilt oil on the communities and the environment. Some of the spilt oil-disaster impacts for exposed communities include psychological effects and socio-demographic characteristics. In this study, the characteristics, sources, spatial and socio-demographic risk predictions of the spilt oil discovered by Kolo Creek coastal residents are examined. A random sample of 900 residents of Kolo Creek coastal communities included exposure characteristics linked to health, the social and economic lifestyle of the communities.  The demographic characteristics included age, gender, literacy, and occupation as covariates in the analyses.  Respondents provided varied information on the amount of health, the social, and economic impacts. The highest and lowest direct exposure impact accounts 94.65±2.0% and 5.95±1.52% for smoggy weather and obstruction to watercourses respectively. The geochemical distribution pattern was examined using standard laboratory procedures.  This investigation included the determination of the physical and chemical characteristics of water samples at the oil spill sites. Also, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total hydrocarbon content (THC), and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of both water and sediment samples were carried out. A strong correlation exists between these parameters (i.e. at p < 0.01) and indicate communalities greater than 0.5. The pollution distribution maps support the spatial distribution pattern and correlate significantly (p < 0.01) with the exposure distribution, and the geochemical distribution patterns.

spilt oil, three-tier characteristics, total hydrocarbon content, total petroleum hydrocarbon, Niger Delta

Article Details

Supporting Agencies
This research was supported by the monthly research allowance provided by the author’s institution and the goodwill of some of the ex-students who participated in the survey.
How to Cite
Egirani, D., Shehata, N., Ugwu, I., Opukumo, A., & Eteh, D. (2021). Exposure, geochemical, and spatial distribution patterns of an oil spill in parts of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Health and Environment, 2(1), 103-117.


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