Surface and groundwater are the main sources of water supply in Libya. This study aims to assess the water quality index for drinking and irrigation purposes. 15 surfaces and 47 groundwater samples are collected in an area where lies in Al Jabal Al Akhdar region, northeast Libya. Water quality parameters such as temperature (T), pH levels, EC, TDS, TH, TAK, major cations ( Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and NH4+) and major anions (Cl-, PO43-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO42- and NO2-) were measured. Water quality indices including SAR, % Na, RSC, PI, MH, Kelly’s Ratio and PS were also computed. Main water types were classified based on Piper trilinear diagram. The results revealed a basic pH level for surface water with a maximum level of 7.88. In addition, it is also exhibited a basic pH level for groundwater in the wet season and changed from acidic to basic in the dry season with a maximum level of 8.1. This indicates high-level concentrations of bicarbonate in water samples as measured. It observed that the ratio between TDS and EC increased with the decrease of pH levels, which indicates more releasing inorganic matter. Calcium and sodium are the dominant cations while Bicarbonate and sulfate are the dominant anions in water samples. Based on the U.S salinity, the Wilcox, and the Doneen classifications, the obtained results revealed that the surface water is suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. Meanwhile, the groundwater is classified between excellent and doubtful except for some samples that were classified as unfit for irrigation purposes. Furthermore and based on the Piper diagram, the water types are classified as calcium sulfate, sodium chloride and as calcium bicarbonate. The water statuses categorization, based on the computational method of water quality index for drinking and irrigation agree with that concluded by US salinity, the Wilcox, and the Doneen diagram.
Davidson E. Egirani, Nabila Shehata, Ifeoma Mary Ugwu, Alfred Opukumo, Desmond Eteh
Large-scale and small-scale spilt oil is as old as exploration activities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. There is a need to provide the exposure, geochemical and spatial characteristics in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria because of the effects of the spilt oil on the communities and the environment. Some of the spilt oil-disaster impacts for exposed communities include psychological effects and socio-demographic characteristics. In this study, the characteristics, sources, spatial and socio-demographic risk predictions of the spilt oil discovered by Kolo Creek coastal residents are examined. A random sample of 900 residents of Kolo Creek coastal communities included exposure characteristics linked to health, the social and economic lifestyle of the communities. The demographic characteristics included age, gender, literacy, and occupation as covariates in the analyses. Respondents provided varied information on the amount of health, the social, and economic impacts. The highest and lowest direct exposure impact accounts 94.65±2.0% and 5.95±1.52% for smoggy weather and obstruction to watercourses respectively. The geochemical distribution pattern was examined using standard laboratory procedures. This investigation included the determination of the physical and chemical characteristics of water samples at the oil spill sites. Also, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total hydrocarbon content (THC), and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of both water and sediment samples were carried out. A strong correlation exists between these parameters (i.e. at p < 0.01) and indicate communalities greater than 0.5. The pollution distribution maps support the spatial distribution pattern and correlate significantly (p < 0.01) with the exposure distribution, and the geochemical distribution patterns.
The level of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Mg, Ca, Hg, Ni, Cr, Zn, Ag, Co, Mo, Se and Al) in soils and food crops (okra, cassava and rice) cultivated within selected mining sites in Ebonyi State, Nigeria were determined using FS240AA Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) according to the method of American Public Health Association (APHA). Soil samples were collected from Enyigba mining site, Ikwo mining site, AmeriAmekamining site, Izza mining site, MkpumeAkwatakwa mining site and MpumeAkwaokuku mining site while the food crop samples (okra, cassava and rice) were collected from the farmlands within the mining sites. Control samples were collected 500m away from the mining destinations were there was no evidence of mining activities on the soils. A total of sixty sub-samples and six control soil samples were collected for this study. Generally, the values of all the heavy metals analyzed for soil and food crop samples were higher than the values recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), and those from the control site suggesting possible mobility of the metals from mining sites to farmlands through leaching and runoffs. The findings in this study also revealed that the food crops contain heavy metals exceeding the maximum permissible concentration, and could be detrimental to human health when they are consumed.
The impact of environmental pollution on human health has become a consensus. Based on the provincial panel data of China from 2002 to 2017, this paper analyzes the impact of industrial wastes on human health. With respect to human health, average annual frequency of physician visits per capita (AAFPV) is used as a measure for the short-term human health; all-cause mortality is used to illustrate the long-term human health. The results show that in the short term, with the level of industrial smoke dust increasing every 1 percentage, AAFPV would increase by 0.24 percentage. This effect is significant in East China and West China. Central China is affected by industrial waste water, with a rate of increasing AAFPV by 0.12 percent for every 1 percent increase of chemical oxygen demand per unit area. In the long term, water pollution is the main influencing factor of all-cause mortality.
This paper explores the possibility of renovating the FirstOntario Centre in Hamilton, Ontario, a large hockey stadium that can also be used to host concerts and similar events. Presently the facility is too big to fit the needs of Hamiltonians in a sustainable way and the excess space/seating raise the cost of maintenance unnecessarily while leaving the arena severely underutilized at around an average of just over 50% utilization. In other words, FirstOntario Centre is a case study in regenerating excellence. We describe the challenges and potential solutions to repurpose this space in order to regenerate social, economic, and environmental excellence in the heart of this mid-sized Ontario city. This case study can inform others seeking to reinvigorate attributes of livable cities.
Currently, (2019-2020) COVID-19 global pandemic is caused by a member of the Coronaviridae group. Some human viruses are spread from human to human by way of droplets or aerosols, but fewer viruses are persistently airborne in transmission, and the healthcare-associated epidemic of airborne viral infection are restricted to very few surrogates. The prevention of air pollutants (i.e., biological, particles, chemicals, and smoke) at the resource has the highest efficiency to keep safe air. In addition, it is one of the most efficient tools (i.e. the second one) for preventing inside air pollution through ventilation. To our aim was to perform a rapid literature review to answer the following question: does ventilation in healthcare facilities prevention of infection COVID-19? We systematically searched Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed Central (PMC), Google Scholar databases as well as medRxiv by using the following key-words: ‘COVID-19’, ‘healthcare settings’, ‘prevention’, ‘ventilation’, ‘Hospital, ‘Infection’, and ‘Air changes per hour. A total of 26 eligible articles were identified. The literature denotes that temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation and air conditioning systems have beneficial effects to prevent COVID-19 infection. Thus, based on recommendations of CDC, WHO, and other studies effective ventilation is the most important transmission of respiratory disease control strategy, specially COVID-19.