Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

Bolreal ecotone of the East-European Plain: Empirical statistical modeling

Main Article Content

Erland G. Kolomyts corresponding author


The solution of multipurpose tasks of ecological forecasting may depend to a great extent  on the results of system analysis of nature-territorial structures,  which are most sensitive to external effects including anthropogenic.  The  scientific search in this direction focuses more and more attention on the natural boundaries  –  both individual  and  complex, where  the  most  significant  natural  or anthropogenic shifts in the structure and function of geo(eco)systems  are  observed.  Considering one or another natural boundary as a vector (connection,  cascade, para-dynamical, etc.) landscape system  with a clearly  defined spatial polarization of its different properties,  we obtain a "fast-flowing" model of  state  response  and  resistance  of geo(eco)systems to the action of certain ecological factors.  The study of the structural-functional organization of natural ecosystems at the geographical ecotones is also of scientific and methodical importance, which is common with geo-ecology and, in addition, most important for regional and local landscape-ecological forecasts. Geographical ecotones are the most sensitive (and, in this sense, the least stable) fragments of natural-territorial mosaic. The boreal biogeographic ecotone of the Volga River basin is described as an example for considering the theoretical and scientific-methodical problems of geographical zonality: the fundamental ecological-geographical conception at the present-day stage of biosphere evolution associated with the global anthropogenic impact on the climate. A conception on regional bioclimatic system, characterizing climate-genic exo-dynamic characteristics of soil-vegetation "core" of natural com-plexes is presented. It can survey as a scientific-methodological base of paleogeographical reconstructions and landscape-ecological forecasts. Climate nishes of the phytocoenological and soil’ units are the elements of bioclimatic system and the forms of display of soil-vegatation cover’ hydrothermal stability during the changing climate. Zonal boundaries are considered as modern spatial analogs of the future landscape changes in time. The work dwells on the basic "trigger" mechanisms of zonal boundary formation at the interaction of background climatic signals and their refraction by local (mainly lithe-genic) factors. 

geographical zonality, boreal ecotone, landscape connections, chain reactions, empirical statistical modeling

Article Details

How to Cite
Kolomyts, E. G. (2022). Bolreal ecotone of the East-European Plain: Empirical statistical modeling. Resources Environment and Information Engineering, 4(1), 156-172.


  1. Glazovskaya MA. Geochemical principles of typology and methods of studies on natural landscapes. Moscow: Publishing House of MGU (in Russian), 1964.
  2. Chorley BJ and Kennedy BA. Physical Geography. A System Appro¬ach. London, Prentice-Hall, 1971.
  3. Armand AD and Kupriyanova TP. Types of natural systems and physical-geographical regionalization. Izvestiya RAN. Ser. geogr. 1976, 5: 26-38. (in Russian)
  4. Mil’kov PN. Physical geography: current state. patterns. problems. Voro-nezh: Voronezh Publishing House university, 1981. (in Russian)
  5. Odum EP. Fundamentals of Ecology. Third edition. Philadelphia, London, Toromto. W.B. Saunders Company, 1971.
  6. Sochava VB. Vegetation cover on the subject maps. Novosibirsk. Nauka, 1979. (in Russian)
  7. Zaletaev AS. Ecotonnye ecosystemy kak geographicheskoe yavlenie i prob-lemy ekotonizatsii biosphery. In: R.I. Zlotin et al., eds. Sovremennye problemy ge-ographii ecosystem. Moscow: Institut geographii AN SSSR, 1984, 53-55. (in Russian)
  8. Kolomyts EG. Landscape research in transition zones. Moscow: Nauka, 1987. (in Russian)
  9. Zaletaev AS. ed. 1997. Ecotones in Biosphere. Moscow: Water problems inst. RAS (in Russian).
  10. Solov’eva VV and Rosenberg GS. The modern concept of ecotones or the theory of Ecotones. Successes of modern biology, 2006, 126(6): 531-549. (in Russian)
  11. Preobrazhensky VS. Organization. organization of landscapes (Preprint). Moscow: Inst. of geography RAS, 1986. (in Russian)
  12. Armand DL. Science about landscape. Moscow: Mysl’, 1975. (in Russian)
  13. Preobrazhensky VS. ed. 1978. Nature. technology. geotechnical systems. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).
  14. Grodzinskii MD. Resistance of geosystems: theoretical approach to quanti-tative analysis. Izvestiya RAN. Ser. geogr, 1987, 6: 5-15. (in Russian)
  15. Armand AD. Sharp and Gradual Mountain Timberlines as a Result of Species Interaction. Springer New York, 1992.
  16. Ricklefs RE. A textbook in basic ecology. University Pennsylvania: Chiron Press Inc. Portland. Oregon, 1976.
  17. Di Castri F and Hansen AJ. (1992). The Environment and Development Crises as Determinants of Landscape Dynamics. In: Hansen, A.J., di Castri, F. (eds) Landscape Boundaries. Ecological Studies, vol 92. Springer, New York, NY.
  18. Kolomyts EG. Boreal ecotone and geographic zonality: Atlas-monograph. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian. Abstract in English. 380-384), 2005.
  19. Zlotin RI. Ecological problems of biota and stability of geosystems. Izvestiya AN SSSR. Ser. geogr, 1987, 6: 45-51. (in Russian)
  20. Bazilevich NI, Grebenshchikov OS and Tishkov AA. Geographic patterns of the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Moscow: Nauka, 1986. (in Russian)
  21. Glazovskaya MA. Biogeochemical organization of ecological space in natural and anthropogenic landscapes as a criterion of their stability. Izvestiya RAN. Ser.geogr, 1992, 5: 5-12. (in Russian)
  22. Isachenko AG. The system of landscapes and the content of the landscape map of the World. Izvestia VGO, 1988, 120(b): 489-501. (in Russian)
  23. Kolomyts EG, Yunina VP, Sidorenko MV, et al. Coniferous forest ecosystems on the zonal border. Organization. sustainability. anthropogenic dy-namics. Nizhny Novgorod: Institute of Ecology of Volga River Basin RAS, 1993. (in Russian)
  24. Kolomyts EG. Polymorphism of landscale-zonal systems. Pushchino: OPTI PSC RAS (in Russian. Abstract in English. 266-277), 1998.
  25. Zonn SV, Mints AA. ed. 1967. Middle zone of the European part of the USSR. Moscow: Nauka (in Rusian).
  26. Dedkov AP. About denudation cuts and ancient surfaces of alignment in the Middle Volga Region. In Exogenous processes in the Middle Volga Region. 3-20. Ka-zan’: Kazan Publishing House university, 1972. (in Russian)
  27. Sukachev VN. Selected Works. Vol. 1. Basics of forest typology and biogeocoenology. Leningrad: Nauka, 1972. (in Russian)
  28. Maximova VF. Phytoindication in the ocean-mainland system. Teoretiches-kie i prikladnye aspekty biogeographii. Moscow: Nauka, 1982, 149-162. (in Russian)
  29. Armand AD and Vedyushkin MA. Trigger geosystems (Preprint). Moscow: Institute geigraphii AN SSSR, 1989. (in Russian)
  30. Bazilevich NI and Rodin LE. Geographic patterns of productivity and turnover of chemical elements in the main types of vegetation on the Earth. In Obshchie teoreticheskie problemy biologicheskoy produknivnosti. Edited by O.V. Zelensky and L.E. Rodin, 1969, 24-33. Leningrad: Nauka. (in Russian)
  31. Molchanov AA. Productivity of organic matter in forests of different zones. Moscow: Nauka, 1971. (in Russian)
  32. Bazilevich NI. Biological productivity of ecosystems in Northern Eurasia. Moscow: Nauka, 1993.
  33. Budyko MI. Climate in the past and in the future. Leningrad: Gidrometeoiz-dat, 1980. (in Russian)
  34. Ashby WR. An Introduction to Cybernetics. London: Oxford University Press, 1956.
  35. Kustler G. ABC of information theory. In Information theory in Biology. by edited Hubert P. Yockey. 5-48. London New York Los Angeles: Pergamon Press, 1957.
  36. Armand AD. Information models of natural complexes. Moscow: Nauka, 1975. (in Russian)
  37. Puzachenko YG and Skulkin VS. Structure of forest zone vegetation for USSR. System analysis. Moscow: Nauka, 1981. (in Russian)
  38. Neishtadt MI. The history of forests and paleogeography of the USSR territory in the holocene. Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1957. (in Russian)
  39. Gerasimov IP and Velichko AA. eds. 1982. Paleogeography of Europe over the last hundred thousand years (Atlas-Monograph). Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).
  40. Budyko MI, Borzenkova II, Menzhulin GV, et al. Forthcom-ing changes in the regional climate. Izvestiya RAN. Ser. geogr., 1992, 4: 36-53. (in Russian)
  41. Velichko AA and Klimanov VA. Climatic conditions of the Northern Hemi-sphere 5-6 thousand years ago. Izvestia AN SSSR. Ser. geogr., 1990, 5: 38-52. (in Russian)
  42. Velichko AA. ed. 1999. Climate and landscape change over the past 65 million years. Moscow: GEOS (in Russian).
  43. Wetherald RT and Manabe S. The mechanisms of summer dryness in-duced by greenhouse warming. Journal of Climate, 1995, 8: 3096-3108.;2