2. Navajas E V, Krema H, Hammoudi D S, et al., 2015, Retinal toxicity of high-dose hydroxychloroquine in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Can J Ophthalmol, vol.50(6): 442-450.
3. Eaton S A, Jayasooriah N, Buckland M E, et al., 2015, Roll over Weismann: extracellular vesicles in the transgenerational transmission of environmental effects. Epigenomics, vol.7(7): 1165-1171.
4. Howe P L, Reichelt-Brushett A J, Clark M W, et al., 2017, Toxicity estimates for diuron and atrazine for the tropical marine cnidarian Exaiptasia pallida and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. using PAM chlorophyll-a fluorometry. J Photochem Photobiol B, vol.171: 125-132.
5. Di Cesare Mannelli L, Tenci B, Zanardelli M, et al., 2015, alpha7 Nicotinic Receptor Promotes the Neuroprotective Functions of Astrocytes against Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity. Neural Plast, vol.2015: 396908.
6. de Souza J J, Abrahao W A, de Mello J W, et al., 2015, Geochemistry and spatial variability of metal(loid) concentrations in soils of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Sci Total Environ, vol.505: 338-349.
7. Verma M, 2015, Toxicoepigenomics and cancer: implications for screening. Methods Mol Biol, vol.1238: 355-367.
8. Lehmann H and Pabst J Y, 2016, [Phytovigilance: A medical requirement and a legal obligation]. Ann Pharm Fr, vol.74(1): 49-60.
9. Karila L, Megarbane B, Cottencin O, et al., 2015, Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem. Curr Neuropharmacol, vol.13(1): 12-20.
10. Iwai C B and Noller B, 2010, Ecotoxicological assessment of diffuse pollution using biomonitoring tool for sustainable land use in Thailand. J Environ Sci (China), vol.22(6): 858-863.
11. Kochling J, Rott Y, Arndt S, et al., 2012, Prevention and synergistic control of Ph(+) ALL by a DNA vaccine and 6-mercaptopurine. Vaccine, vol.30(41): 5949-5955.
12. Nyquist R A, Putzig C L and Leugers M A, 1996, Handbook of Infrared and Raman Spectra of Inorganic Compounds and Organic Salts: Infrared Spectra. Academic press.
13. Meuser H, 2010, Contaminated urban soils. Springer Science & Business Media.
14. Joint W and Organization W H, 2007, Health risks of heavy metals from long-range transboundary air pollution.
15. Mao G, Zhou Z, Chen Y, et al., 2016, Neurological Toxicity of Individual and Mixtures of Low Dose Arsenic, Mono and Di (n-butyl) Phthalates on Sub-Chronic Exposure to Mice. Biol Trace Elem Res, vol.170(1): 183-193.
16. Bukowska B, 2015, [Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of human exposure to selected xenobiotics]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online), vol.69: 668-680.
17. Monin A, Baumann P S, Griffa A, et al., 2015, Glutathione deficit impairs myelin maturation: relevance for white matter integrity in schizophrenia patients. Mol Psychiatry, vol.20(7): 827-838.
18. Ljubisavljevic S, Stojanovic I, Pavlovic R, et al., 2012, The reduced glutathione and S-nitrosothiols levels in acute phase of experimental demyelination--pathophysiological approach and possible clinical relevancy. Neuroscience, vol.219: 175-182.
19. Somma F, Castagnola R, Bollino D, et al., 2010, Oral inflammatory process and general health. Part 1: The focal infection and the oral inflammatory lesion. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, vol.14(12): 1085-1095.
20. Gulati K, Banerjee B, Lall S B, et al., 2010, Effects of diesel exhaust, heavy metals and pesticides on various organ systems: possible mechanisms and strategies for prevention and treatment. Indian J Exp Biol, vol.48(7): 710-721.
21. Grand A, 1999, [Treatment of coronary insufficiency in diabetics: Part 2: acute coronary insufficiency]. Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris), vol.48(2): 119-127.
22. Garg S, Pathak K, Philip A, et al., 2012, Osmotically regulated two-compartment asymmetric membrane capsules for simultaneous controlled release of anti-hypertensive drugs. Sci Pharm, vol.80(1): 229-250.
23. Shin H W, Barletta B, Yoonessi L, et al., 2015, Quantification of Aerosol Hydrofluoroalkane HFA-134a Elimination in the Exhaled Human Breath Following Inhaled Corticosteroids Administration. Clin Transl Sci, vol.8(5): 445-450.
24. Scott H A, Latham J R, Callister R, et al., 2015, Acute exercise is associated with reduced exhaled nitric oxide in physically inactive adults with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, vol.114(6): 470-479.
25. Garland T, 2000, Toxicologic disease of the digestive tract. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract, vol.16(1): 187-207.
26. Charalampous N, Kindou A, Vlastos D, et al., 2015, A Multidisciplinary Assessment of River Surface Water Quality in Areas Heavily Influenced by Human Activities. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, vol.69(2): 208-222.
37. Aschner M, Syversen T, Souza D O, et al., 2006, Metallothioneins: mercury species-specific induction and their potential role in attenuating neurotoxicity. Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol.231(9): 1468-1473.
28. Aydos S E, Karadag A, Ozkan T, et al., 2015, Association of MDR1 C3435T and C1236T single nucleotide polymorphisms with male factor infertility. Genet Mol Res, vol.14(2): 6330-6339.
29. Bag A, Jyala N S and Bag N, 2015, Cytochrome P450 1A1 genetic polymorphisms as cancer biomarkers. Indian J Cancer, vol.52(4): 479-489.
30. Grau-Roma L, Fraile L and Segales J, 2011, Recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of diseases caused by porcine circovirus type 2. Vet J, vol.187(1): 23-32.
31. Hinman R S, Delany C M, Campbell P K, et al., 2016, Physical Therapists, Telephone Coaches, and Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: Qualitative Study About Working Together to Promote Exercise Adherence. Phys Ther, vol.96(4): 479-493.
32. Chiauzzi E, Rodarte C and DasMahapatra P, 2015, Patient-centered activity monitoring in the self-management of chronic health conditions. BMC Med, vol.13: 77.
- Abstract viewed - 1215 times
- PDF downloaded - 314 times
- HTML downloaded - 40 times
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
© Giullio Filippo Tarro, Minguzzi Renato, Verzella Franco, 2017
Giullio Filippo Tarro
Committee on Biotechnologies and Virus-Sphere World Academy Biomedical Technologies, UNESCO, Italy
Comune di Bologna, 40129 Bologna, Italy
Medicina Funzionale, 40069 Zola Pedrosa, Italy
Toxic metals and autism
Vol 1 No 1 (2017)
Submitted: May 25, 2017
Published: May 31, 2017
Toxic metals (MT) are the major pollution to the land (37.3% in Europe), which are produced mainly by industrial activities, entering a far part of our life cycle, through the skin, breathing, ingestion of foods and water. Especially children in the first three years of life are biologically more vulnerable. The spreading epidemic of Autism and developmental disorders, that has been recorded in industrialized countries during the last 20 years is a sensitive thermometer of the pollution. Tests were carried out on 20 MT in a group of 73 subjects diagnosed with autism, the mean age of 8 years old. All 73 patients were over threshold for at least one metal. Seven metals (mercury, lead, antimony, tin, arsenic, thallium, cesium) had values over 50% (thirty-seven patients). The 26% (nineteen patients) exceeded the threshold for ten or more metals. Gadolinium 1521.21 exceeds threshold times. Mercury (x 379.95), tin (x 118), lead (x 108): presenting the coefficients more elevated. The average values exceed the threshold a lot: Mercury (x 28.14), Lead (x 10.56), Tin (x 9.98). With age increases the threshold exceeded for a lower number of metals. The analysis shows that gender has no significant difference, possibly results from the reduced number of females (18%). A future comparison research remains. We will explore the detoxification capacity difference between two genders affected by autism.