Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
Mohamed E. El-Sadek
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
Mohamed M. Baraka
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
Lobna M. Abdel-Aziz
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
Mahmoud Mohammed Sebaiy
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt E-mail:
In this literature review, we will introduce most reported methods that have been developed for determination of certain anti-ulcer drugs such as Ranitidine hydrochloride, Famotidine, Omeprazole, Pantoprazole sodium, Tinidazole and Doxycycline hyclate in their pure form, combined form with other drugs, combined form with degradation products, and in biological samples.
Elbaramawi, S., El-Sadek, M., Baraka, M., Abdel-Aziz, L., & Sebaiy, M. (2020). Instrumental analysis of some anti-ulcer drugs in different matrices. Chemical Reports, 2(1), 156-172. https://doi.org/10.25082/CR.2020.01.005
Graham L. Patrick. An introduction to Medicinal Chemistry, 5th edition, 2013.
The United States Pharmacopoeia, XXXII, The National Formulary, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc, 2010.
Sweetman SC. Martindale-The Complete Drug Reference, 37th edition, The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 2011.
The British Pharmacopoeia, HM Stationery Office, London, 2011.
Perez-Ruiz T, Martinez-Lozano C, Tomas V, et al. Flowinjection extraction-spectrophotometric method for the determination of ranitidine in pharmaceutical preparations. Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 2001, 26(4): 609-615. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(01)00489-7
Kelani KM, Aziz AM, Hegazy MA, et al. Uvspectrophotometric stability indicating methods for the quantitative determination of cimetidine, famotidine, and ranitidine hydrochloride in the presence of their oxidative derivatives. Analytical Letters, 2002, 35(6): 1055-1073. https://doi.org/10.1081/AL-120004555
Basavaiah K and Nagegowda P. Determination of ranitidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations by titrimetry and visible spectrophotometry using bromate and acid dyes. IL Farmaco, 2004, 59: 147-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.farmac.2003.11.012
Basavaiah K and Nagegowda P. Determination of ranitidine using potassium iodate and dichlorofluorescein. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 2004, 11(1): 11-16.
Walash IM, Sharaf El-Din KM, Metwally EM, et al. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Ranitidine. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 2013, 51(3): 523-530. https://doi.org/10.1002/jccs.200400079
Basavaiah K and Somashekar BC. Quantitation of ranitidine in pharmaceuticals by titrimetry and spectrophotometry using potassium dichromate as the oxidimetric reagent. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society, 2007, 4(1): 78-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03245806
Darwish AI, Hussein AS, Mahmoud A, et al. A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of H2- receptor antagonists by means of N-bromosuccinimide and p-aminophenol. Acta Pharm, 2008, 58: 87-97. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10007-007-0047-z
Narayana B, Ashwini K, Divya NS, et al. Spectrophotometric determination of ranitidine hydrochloride based on the reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2010, 5(1): 63-72.
Khalil MM, Frag EY, Mohamed GG, et al. Spectrophotometric studies using ion-pair formations of Ranitidine hydrochloride in pure and in Pharmaceutical forms with some dyestuff reagents. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2013, 3(4): 92-98.
Abdel Kader SA, Abdel Kawy M and Nebsen M. Spectrophotometric and Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Famotidine and Ranitidine Using 1,4-Benzoquinone Reagent. Analytical Letters, 1999, 32(7): 1403-1419. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719908542906
Ulu ST and Cakar MB. A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of ranitidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. Optics and spectroscopy, 2012, 113(2): 126-130. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0030400X12080164
Ho C, Huang HM, Hsu SY, et al. Simultaneous highperformance liquid chromatographic analysis for famotidine, ranitidine HCl, cimetidine, and nizatidine in commercial products. Drug development and industrial pharmacy, 1999, 25(3): 379-385. https://doi.org/10.1081/DDC-100102186
Novakovic J. High-performance thin-layer chromatography for the determination of ranitidine hydrochloride and famotidine in pharmaceuticals. Journal of Chromatography A, 1999, 846(1-2): 193-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00510-5
Kelani MK, Aziz AM, Hegazy MA, et al. Determination of Cimetidine, Famotidine, and Ranitidine Hydrochloride in the Presence of Their Sulfoxide Derivatives in Pure and Dosage Forms by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography and Scanning Densitometry. Journal of AOAC international, 2002, 85(5): 1015-1020. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/85.5.1015
Zendelovska D and Stafilov T. Development of an HPLC method for the determination of ranitidine and cimetidine in human plasma following SPE. Journal of Pharmaceuticals and biomedical analysis, 2003, 33(2): 165-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(03)00265-6
Nascimento TG, Oliveira Ede J and Macedo RO. Simultaneous determination of ranitidine and metronidazole in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Journal of Pharmaceuticals and biomedical analysis, 2004, 37(4): 777-783. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2004.11.042
Kokoletsi MX, Kafkala S and Tsiaganis M. A novel gradient HPLC method for simultaneous determination of ranitidine, methylparaben and propylparaben in oral liquid pharmaceutical formulation. Journal of Pharmaceuticals and Biomedical analysis, 2005, 38(4): 763-767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2005.02.022
Arayne SM, Sultana N, Zuberi HM, et al. Simultaneous Determination of Metformin, Cimetidine, Famotidine, and Ranitidine in Human Serum and Dosage Formulations Using HPLC with UV Detection. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 2010, 48(9): 721-725. https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/48.9.721
Sharma N, Rao SS, Kumar DA, et al. A Validated Stability- Indicating Liquid-Chromatographic Method for Ranitidine Hydrochloride in Liquid Oral Dosage Form. Scientia Pharmaceutica, 2011, 79: 309-322. https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1101-06
Ulu ST and Tuncel M. A Sensitive and Rapid Determination of Ranitidine in Human Plasma by HPLC with Fluorescence Detection and its Application for a Pharmacokinetic Study. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 2012, 50(4): 301-306. https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bms003
Majidano AS and Khuhawar YM. GC Determination of Famotidine, Ranitidine, Cimetidine, and Metformin in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Serum Using Methylglyoxal as Derivatizing Reagent. Chromatographia, 2012, 75(21-22): 1311-1317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10337-012-2321-6
El-Bayoumi AE, El-Shanawany A, El-Sadek EM, et al. Stability indicating spectrodensitometric determination of ranitidine hydrochloride using linear and non-linear regression. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 1999, 21(4): 867-873. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(99)00146-6
Wu SM, Ho YH,Wu HL, et al. Simultaneous determination of cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, and ranitidine in tablets by capillary zone electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 2001, 22(13): 2758-2761. https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-2683(200108)22:13h2758:: AID-ELPS2758i3.0.CO;2-P
Issa YM, Badawy SS and Mutair AA. Ion-Selective Electrodes for Potentiometric Determination of Ranitidine Hydrochloride, Applying Batch and Flow Injection Analysis Techniques. Analytical Sciences, 2005, 21(12): 1443-1448. https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.21.1443
Tang YH,Wang NN, Xiong XY, et al. A new sensitive flowinjection chemiluminescence method for the determination of H(2)-receptor antagonists. Luminescence, 2007, 22(4): 343-348. https://doi.org/10.1002/bio.969
Frag EY, Mohamed AM, Mohamed GG, et al. Construction and Performance Characterization of Ion Selective Electrodes for Potentiometric Determination of Ranitidine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Biological Fluids. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 2011, 6: 3508-3524.
Chang YX, Qiu YQ, Du LM, et al. Determination of ranitidine, nizatidine, and cimetidine by a sensitive fluorescent probe. Analyst, 2011, 136(20): 4168-4173. https://doi.org/10.1039/c1an15078b
Mohamed GG, Khalilb MM, Frag EY, et al. Potentiometric determination of ranitidine hydrochloride utilizing modified carbon paste electrodes. International Journal of current Pharmaceutical Research, 2013, 5(2): 72-79.
Chukwwurah BK and Ajali U. Quantitative determination of famotidine through charge-transfer complexation with chloranilic acid. Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutica, 2001, 140(5): 354-360.
Al-Ghannam S. Spectrophotometric Determination of Three Anti-Ulcer Drugs Through Charge-Transfer Complexation. Journal of AOAC International, 2002, 85(5): 1003-1008. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/85.5.1003
Amin AS, Shama SA, Ahmed IS, et al. Spectrophotometric determination of famotidine through oxidation with nbromosuccinimide and cerric sulphate. Analytical Letters, 2002, 35(1): 1851-1862. https://doi.org/10.1081/AL-120013588
Alazazy MS, Shalaby A, Elbolkiny MN, et al. Spectrophotometric determination of aciclovir, ceftazidime pentahydrate, famotidine and isoxsuprine hydrochloride by ternary complex formation with eosin and Cu (II). Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal, 2003, 55(6): 481-490.
Ayad MM, Shalaby A, Abdellatef HE, et al. New colorimetric methods for the determination of trazodone HCl, famotidine, and diltiazem HCl in their pharmaceutical dosage forms. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2003, 376(5): 710-714. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-003-1954-6
Koricanac Z, Jovanovic T, Petkovic J, et al. Spectrophotometric investigation of famotidine-Pd(II) complex and its analytical application in drug analysis. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 2004, 69(6): 485-491. https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC0406485K
Walash MI, Sharaf-El-Din MK, Metwally ME, et al. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Famotidine in Pharmaceutical Preparations. Journal of Chinese Society, 2005, 52: 71-76. https://doi.org/10.1002/jccs.200500011
Reddy NR, Prabhavathi K, Bhaskar RY, et al. A new spectrophotometric determination of famotidine from tablets. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 2006, 68: 645-647. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.29637
Darwish IA, Hussein SA, Mohmoud AM, et al. Sensitive Indirect Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of H2- Receptor Antagonists in Pharmaceutical Formulations. International Journal of Biomedical Science, 2007, 3(2): 124- 131.
Dipali DT, Sacchidanand RG, Aditi RS, et al. Spectrophotometric Simultaneous Determination of Famotidine and Domperidone in Combined Tablet Dosage Form by Ratio Derivative and Area under Curve Method. Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2(3): 60-66.
Araujo L, Perdomo N, Montiel R, et al. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of famotidine in drug formulations. International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical analysis, 2012, 2(1): 24-29. https://doi.org/10.7439/ijapa.v2i1.15
Walash MI, El-Brashy A, El-Enany N, et al. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Famotidine in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Biological Fluids through Ternary Complex Formation with Some Lanthanide Ions: Application to Stability Studies. International Journal of Biomedical Science, 2009, 5(2): 158-168.
Walash MI, El-Brashy A, El-Enany N, et al. Spectrofluorimetric determination of famotidine in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids through reaction with 1,10 - phenanthraquinone. Application to stability studies. Journal of fluorescence, 2009, 19(2): 333-344. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10895-008-0421-3
Dowling TC and Frye RF. Determination of famotidine in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of chromatography B: Biomedical sciences and Applications, 1999, 732(1): 239-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4347(99)00269-8
Zhong L, Eisenhandler R and Yeh KC. Determination of famotidine in low-volume human plasma by normal-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of mass spectrometry, 2001, 36(7): 736-741. https://doi.org/10.1002/jms.176
Eva A, Filipova K, Nobilis M, et al. Selective determination of famotidine in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography in alkaline media with solid phase extraction. Journal of Separation Science, 2003, 26(8): 722-726. https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200301377
Zarghi A, Shafaati A, Froutan SM, et al. Development of a rapid HPLC method for determination of famotidine in human plasma using a monolithic column. Journal of Pharamceutical and Biomedical analysis, 2005, 39(3-4): 677-680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2005.03.029
Campbell AN and Sherma J. Determination of famotidine in acid reduction tablets by HPTLC and videodensitometry of fluorescence quenched zones. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, 2003, 26(16): 2719-2727. https://doi.org/10.1081/JLC-120024542
Reddy YR, Kumar KK, Reddy M, et al. RP-UPLC method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and famotidine in pharmaceutical dosage form. Pharmaceutical methods, 2012, 3(2): 57-61. https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-4708.103873
Ayad MM, Shalaby A, Abdellatef HE, et al. Potentiometric determination of famotidine in pharmaceutical formulations. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 2002, 29(1-2): 247-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(02)00024-9
Helali N, Adhoum N and Monser L. Flow injection kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of famotidine in pharmaceutical preparations. Journal of Flow Injection Analysis, 2005, 22(2): 129-133.
Tiwari DC, Rajeev J and Gaurav S. Electrochemical behaviour of famotidine in pharmaceutical formulation at composite polymer membrane electrode. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 2008, 15: 472-475.
El-Kousy NM and Bebawy LI. Stability-indicating methods for determining omeprazole and octylonium bromide in the presence of their degradation products. Journal of AOAC International, 1999, 82(3): 599-606. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/82.3.599
Wahbi AA, Abdel-Razak O, Gazy AA, et al. Spectrophotometric determination of omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole in pharmaceutical formulations. Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 2002, 30(4): 1133- 1142. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(02)00464-8
Salama F, El-Abasawy N, Abdel-Razeq SA, et al. Validation of the spectrophotometric determination of omeprazole and pantoprazole sodium via their metal chelates. Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 2003, 33(3): 411- 421. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(03)00233-4
Karljikovic-Rajic K, Novovic D, Marinkovic V, et al. Firstorder UV-derivative spectrophotometry in the analysis of omeprazole and pantoprazole sodium salt and corresponding impurities. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2003, 32(4-5): 1019-1027. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(03)00204-8
Ahmed SS, Santosh RK, Simpi CC, et al. Visible spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of losartan potassium and omeprazole in single component pharmaceutical formulations. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research, 2009, 1(4): 1247-1250.
Bhandage A, Bhosale A, Kasture A, et al. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Omeprazole in Pharmaceutical Preparations. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2009, 8(5): 449-454. https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v8i5.48089
Mahmoud AM. New Sensitive Kinetic Spectrophotometric Methods forDetermination of Omeprazole in Dosage Forms. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2009, Article ID 307045. https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/307045
Bhuva SD and Patel MM. Spectrophotometric simultaneous estimation of Omeprazole and Cinitapride in bulk and formulation. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2012, 5(4): 40-42.
Lotfy HM and Abdel-Monem HM. Comparative study of novel spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra: an application on pharmaceutical ternary mixture of omeprazole, tinidazole and clarithromycin. Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Bimolecular spectroscopy, 2012, 96: 259-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2012.04.095
Ashour S and Bayram R. Validated Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using 1,2- naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate. International research journal of Pure and Applied chemistry, 2013, 3(2): 118-132. https://doi.org/10.9734/IRJPAC/2013/3160
Shaghaghi M, Manzoori JL and Jouyban A. Indirect spectrofluorimetric determination of omeprazole by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of Tb3+-1,10-phenanthroline complex in presence of bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium in caps. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2008, 16(4): 256-262.
El-sherif ZA, Mohamed OA, El-Bardicy MG, et al. Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Lansoprazole, Omeprazole and Pantoprazole Sodium Sesquihydrate in Presence of Their Acid-Induced Degradation Products. Chemical Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2006, 54(6): 814-818. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.54.814
Murakami FS, Cruz AP, Pereira RN, et al. Development and validation of a RP-HPLC method to quantify omeprazole in delayed release tablets. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and related Technologies, 2007, 30(1): 113-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826070601034485
Raval PB, Puraik M, Wadher SJ, et al. A validated HPTLC method for determination of ondansetron in combination with omeprazole or rabeprazole in solid dosage form. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2008, 70(3): 386-390. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.43011
Dedania Z, Dedania R, Karkhanis V, et al. RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of omeprazole and ondansetron in combined dosage forms. Asian Journal of Research Chemistry, 2009, 2(2): 108-111.
Rezk NL, Briwn KC and Kashuba AM. A simple and sensitive bioanalytical assay for simultaneous determination of omeprazole and its three major metabolites in human blood plasma using RP-HPLC after a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Journal of Chromatography B, 2006, 844: 314-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.07.047
Nahar K, Joti J, Ullah MA, et al. A simple RPHPLC method for the determination of omeprazole in human serum and urine: Validation and application in pharmacokinetic study. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2009, 8(2): 123-130. https://doi.org/10.3329/dujps.v8i2.6026
Borges KB, Duran-Patron R, Sanchez AJ, et al. Fast HPLC Analysis of Omeprazole, 5-Hydroxyomeprazole and Omeprazole Sulfone in Liquid Culture Medium using a Monolithic Column for Application in Biotransformation Studies with Fungi. Journal of Brazalian Chemical Society, 2011, 22(6): 1140-1149. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532011000600020
Darwish KM, Salama I, Mostafa S, et al. RP-HPLC/precolumn derivatization for analysis of omeprazole, tinidazole, doxycycline and clarithromycin. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 2012, 51(6): 566-576. https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bms167
Walash MI, Ibrahim F and Abo El-Abass S. Isocratic RPHPLC method for separation and simultaneous determination of ternary mixture of omeprazole, tinidazole and doxycycline in their raw materials and combined capsules. Analytical methods, 2013, 5(19): 5105-5111. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ay41029c
Qaisi AM, Tutunji MF and Tutunji LF. Acid decomposition of omeprazole in the absence of thiol: a differential pulse polarographic study at the static mercury drop electrode (SMDE). Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2006, 95(2): 384-391. https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20546
Nevado JB, Penalvo GC and Dorado RR. Method development and validation for the separation and determination of omeprazole enantiomers in pharmaceutical preparations by capillary electrophoresis. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2005, 533(2): 127-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.11.018
Perez-Ruiz T, Martinez-Lozano C, Sanz A, et al. Determination of omeprazole, hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole sulfone using automated solid phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Journal of pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2006, 42(1): 100-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2005.09.029
Shu-hua H. Determination of Omeprazole by Flow Injection Combined with Chemiluminescence. Journal of Analytical Sciences, 2007, 23(1): 51-53.
Fiqueiras A, Sarraquca JM, Pais AA, et al. The role of L-arginine in inclusion complexes of omeprazole with cyclodextrins. AAPS Pharm SciTech, 2010, 11(1): 233-240. https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-009-9375-2
Moustafa AA. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of lansoprazole and pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2000, 22: 45-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(99)00275-7
Basavaiah K, Anilkumar UR and Tharpa K. Spectrophotometric Determination of Pantoprazole Sodium in Pharmaceuticals Using N-Bromosuccinimide, Methyl Orange and Indigo Carmine as Reagents. Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical engineering, 2009, 28(1): 31-36.
Basavaiah K, Rajendraprasad N, Tharpa K, et al. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assay of pantoprazole in pharmaceuticals using permanganate. Journal of Mexican Chemical Society, 2009, 53(1): 34-40. https://doi.org/10.29356/jmcs.v53i1.1015
Devi OZ and Basavaiah K. Validated spectrophotometric determination of pantoprazole sodium in pharmaceuticals using ferric chloride and two chelating agents. International Journal of Chem Tech Research, 2010, 2(1): 624-632. https://doi.org/10.2298/CICEQ090617005B
Cass QB, Degani AL, Cassiano NM, et al. Enantiomeric determination of pantoprazole in human plasma by multidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 2002, 766(1): 153-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4347(01)00472-8
Patel BH, Suhagia BN, Patel MM, et al. Determination of pantoprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole, domperidone and itopride in pharmaceutical products by reversed phase liquid chromatography using single mobile phase. Chromatographia, 2007, 65: 743-748. https://doi.org/10.1365/s10337-007-0220-z
Reddy PB, Jayaprakash M, Sivaji K, et al. Determination of pantoprazole sodium and lansoprazole in individual dosage form tablets by rp-hplc using single mobile phase. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 2010, 1(2): 683-688.
Letica J, Markovic S, Zirojevic J, et al. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Pantoprazole and Its Main Impurities in Pharmaceuticals. Journal of AOAC International, 2010, 93(4): 1121-1128. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/93.4.1121
Hegazy MA, Yehia AM and Mostafa AA. Stability- Indicating Chromatographic Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Mosapride and Pantoprazole in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form and Plasma Samples. Chromatographia, 2011, 74: 839-845. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10337-011-2144-x
Varsha J and Jitendra P. Simultaneous Estimation Of Cinitapride And Pantoprazole Sodium By Rp-Hplc In Their Marketed Formulation. International Journal of Chem Tech Research, 2012, 4(4): 1396-1401.
Pandy S, Pandey P, Mishra D, et al. A validated stability indicating HPLC method for the determination of processrelated impurities in pantoprazole bulk drug and formulations. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013, 49(1): 175-184. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502013000100019
Erk N. Differential pulse anodic voltammetric determination of pantoprazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human plasma using glassy carbon electrode. Analytical Biochemistry, 2003, 323(1): 48-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2003.08.023
Castro SL, Neto OD, Santos SR, et al. A flow-injection biamperometric method for determination of pantoprazole in pharmaceutical tablets. Journal of AOAC international, 2005, 88(4): 1064-1068. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/88.4.1064
Adegokea O, Umoha O and Soyinkab J. Spectrophotometric determination of metronidazole and tinidazole via charge transfer complexation using chloranilic acid. Journal of Iranian Chemical Society, 2010, 7(2): 359-370. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03246021
Kamel M, Barsoum B and Sayed R. Determination of some important antibacterial drugs using alizarins and thymol blue UV - Visible spectrophotometry. Journal of Applied Science, 2009, 5(7): 880-886.
Nandipura D, Padmarajiah N and Kanchugar R. A Sensitive Spectrophotometric Assay for Tinidazole and Metronidazole Using a Pd-C and Formic Acid Reduction System. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 2004, 28: 335-343.
Nagaraja P, Sunitha K, Vasanta R, et al. Spectrophotometric determination of metronidazole and tinidazole in pharmaceutical preparations. Journal of Pharmceutical and biomedical Analysis, 2002, 28(3-4): 527-535. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(01)00685-9
Adegoke OA and Umoh OE. A new approach to the spectrophotometric determination of metronidazole and tinidazole using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. Acta Pharmaceutica, 2009, 59(4): 407-419. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10007-009-0039-2
Sinhg L and Nanda S. Method for Determination of Tinidazole using Direct UV-Visible Spectrophotometry and Differential Spectrophotometry in Pure and Tablet Dosage Forms. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011, 14: 75-80.
Abou-Taleb NH, El-Sherbiny DT, El-Wasseef DR, et al. Simultaneous determination of norfloxacin and tinidazole binary mixture by difference spectroscopy. International Journal of Biomedical Science, 2011, 7(2): 137-144.
Alhemiary NA and Saleh MH. Spectrophotometric Determination of Tinidazole Using Promethazine and Ethyl Vanillin Reagents in Pharmaceutical Preparations. Der Pharma Chemica, 2012, 4(6): 2152-2160.
Zheltvai OI, Zheltvai II, Spinul VV, et al. Spectrophotometry determination of metronidazole and tinidazole by their complexation with copper(II). Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2013, 68(7): 600-605. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1061934813050171
Sebaiy MM, Hassan WS and Elhennawy ME. Developing a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Method for Simultaneous Determination of Oxytetracycline, Tinidazole and Esomeprazole in Human Plasma. Journal of Chromatographic Sciences, 2019, 57(8): 724-729. https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmz046
Sebaiy MM, Hassan WS, Saad MZ, et al. Developing a Highly Validated and Sensitive HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Oxytetracycline, Tinidazole and Esomeprazole in Their Dosage Forms. Austin Journal of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2019, 6(1): 1112.
Sebaiy MM, El-Shanawany AA, El-Adl SM, et al. Rapid RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Norfloxacin and Tinidazole in Tablet Dosage Form. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2011, 1(4): 79-84.
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