Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

Managing urban wastewater to fight the pandemic of COVID-19 effectively

Main Article Content

Abdol Aziz Shahraki corresponding author


The paper reveals the role of wastewaters in the spread of Coronavirus in cities and focuses on the need for collection, treatment, and management of wastewaters. While the focus of the fight against COVID-19 is on the production of vaccines, drugs and treatments, this article emphasizes the cleanliness of the environment with wastewater management. This paper is a novel work, since it presents a multi-side research concerning fighting against coronavirus through wastewater collection and treatment. Studies show that coronavirus exists in urban wastewaters and spread the COVID-19 everywhere. Coronavirus is attacking people globally and shrinking the economy. The question addressed by this paper is; will communities overcome the coronavirus without well-collected and treated wastewaters? The methods to achieve the goals are theoretical surveys, case study strategy, mathematical modeling, statistical procedures, forecasting the future, and discussions. A mathematical model will be built to calculate the number of deaths caused by the coronavirus with the help of registered statistics and predict the future trend of the disease pandemic in Iran. Since Coronavirus has been seen in wastewaters, results of this research demonstrate the need for carefully collected and treated wastewaters to overcome the coronavirus. This paper gives suitable techniques to treat wastewater as stabilization ponds, bacterial reactors, and anaerobic ponds. Concluding, this paper suggests indicators to select a wastewater treatment technique in every city, and its outcome will assist the global community in fighting the coronavirus more successfully.

COVID-19, waste water treatment techniques, mathematical model, statistical procedures, bacterial reactors, anaerobic ponds

Article Details

How to Cite
Shahraki, A. A. (2021). Managing urban wastewater to fight the pandemic of COVID-19 effectively. Health and Environment, 3(1), 141-151.


  1. Paramasivam A, Priyadharsini JV, Raghunandhakumar S, et al. A novel COVID-19 and its effects on cardiovascular disease. Hypertension Research, 2020, 43(7): 729-730.
  2. van Kampen JJ, van de Vijver DA, Fraaij PL, et al. Shedding of infectious virus in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): duration and key determinants. MedRxiv. 2020 Jan 1.
  3. Dong Y, Dai T, Liu J, et al. Coronavirus in Continuous Flux: From SARS-CoV to SARS-CoV-2. Advanced Science, 2020, 7(20): 2001474.
  4. Acter T, Uddin N, Das J, et al. Evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: A global health emergency. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, 730: 138996.
  5. Arslan M, Xu B and El-Din MG. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via fecal-oral and aerosols–borne routes: Environmental dynamics and implications for wastewater management in underprivileged societies. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, 743: 140709.
  6. Atangana E, Oberholster PJ and Turton AR. Will the extraction of COVID-19 from wastewater help flatten the curve?. Chemosphere, 2021, 271: 129429.
  7. Kataki S, Chatterjee S, Vairale MG, et al. Concerns and strategies for wastewater treatment during COVID-19 pandemic to stop plausible transmission. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2020, 164: 105156.
  8. Capua I. Circular Health: Empowering the One Health Revolution. EGEA spa, 2020.
  9. Navarro V. The Consequences of Neoliberalism in the Current Pandemic. International Journal of Health Services, 2020, 50(3): 271-275.
  10. Das K, Behera RL and Paital B. Socio-economic impact of COVID-19. In COVID-19 in the Environment, Elsevier, 2022, 153-190.
  11. Bapuji H, Patel C, Ertug G, et al. Corona crisis and inequality: Why management research needs a societal turn, 2020.
  12. van Barneveld K, Quinlan M, Kriesler P, et al. The COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons on building more equal and sustainable societies. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 2020, 31(2): 133-157.
  13. Arak University of Medical Sciences Iran. Institutional publication in Farsi, 2020.
  14. Shahraki AA. Post Covid-19 urbanization requires new standards and per capita in planning, design, and building. Social Work and Social Welfare, 2021, 3(1): 167-171.
  15. Agulonye UVP and Adayi D. A Crying Economy in a Bleeding State: Effects of Religious and Ethnic Militia in Nigeria. In Handbook of Research on Ethnic, Racial, and Religious Conflicts and Their Impact on State and Social Security (pp. 273-297). IGI Global, 2022.
  16. Josephson A, Kilic T and Michler JD. Socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19 in low-income countries. Nature Human Behaviour, 2021, 5(5): 557-565.
  17. Tr´eguer F. The Virus of Surveillance: How the COVID-19 pandemic is fuelling technologies of control. Political Anthropological Research on International Social Sciences, 2021, 2(1): 16-46.
  18. Tomasino MP, Semedo M, Vieira P, et al. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in urban wastewater from Porto, Portugal: Method optimization and continuous 25-week monitoring. Science of The Total Environment, 2021, 792(1):148467.
  19. Castiglioni S, Schiarea S, Pellegrinelli L, et al. SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urban wastewater samples to monitor the COVID-19 epidemic in Lombardy, Italy (March–June 2020). medRxiv, 2021.
  20. Wu F, Xiao A, Zhang J, et al. SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in wastewater foreshadow dynam Total Environment, 2022, 805: 150121.
  21. AhmedW, Angel N, Edson J, et al. First confirmed detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater in Australia: a proof of concept for the wastewater surveillance of COVID-19 in the community. Science of The Total Environment, 2020, 728: 138764.
  22. Hantoko D, Li X, Pariatamby A, et al. Challenges and practices on waste management and disposal during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Environmental Management, 2021, 286: 112140.
  23. Mohan M, Rue HA, Bajaj S, et al. Afforestation, reforestation and new challenges from COVID-19: Thirty-three recommendations to support Civil Society Organizations (CSOs). Journal of Environmental Management, 2021, 112277.
  24. Shahraki AA. The Post-Covid-19 Era Requires Maximum Urban Resilience. Preprints 2021, 2021100286
  25. Sangkham S. A review on detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater in light of the current knowledge of treatment process for removal of viral particles. Journal of Environmental Management, 2021, 113563.
  26. Asano T. Water from (waste) water–the dependable water resource (The 2001 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate Lecture). Water science and technology, 2002, 45(8): 23-33.
  27. Capolongo S, Rebecchi A, Dettori M, et al. Healthy design and urban planning strategies, actions, and policy to achieve salutogenic cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018, 15(12): 2698.
  28. Akter S, Hakim SS and Rahman MS. Planning for Pandemic Resilience: COVID-19 experience from urban slums in Khulna, Bangladesh. Journal of Urban Management, 2021.
  29. Johnson UCEB and Trautman LJ. The Demographics of Death: An Early Look at COVID-19, Cultural and Racial Bias in America. Cultural and Racial Bias in America (August 20, 2020).
  30. Tran HN, Le GT, Nguyen DT, et al. SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in water and wastewater: A critical review about presence and concern. Environmental Research, 2020, 110265.
  31. Haruna A and Yahaya SM. Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Bioactive Compounds from Plants and Soil Microbes: a Review. Chemistry Africa, 2021, 4(2): 231-248.
  32. Lahrich S, Laghrib F, Farahi A, et al. Review on the contamination of wastewater by COVID-19 virus: Impact and treatment. Science of the Total Environment, 2021, 751: 142325.
  33. Alam A and Ali L. Prospects and Risks Related to Potential Transmission of COVID-19 and Other Viruses and Disinfection in Sewage Effluent. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 2021, 53(2): 743-755.
  34. Mara D. Domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries. Routledge, 2013 Jun 17.
  35. Barcelo D. An environmental and health perspective for COVID-19 outbreak: meteorology and air quality influence, sewage epidemiology indicator, hospitals disinfection, drug therapies and recommendations. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2020, 8(4): 104006.
  36. Aguiar-Oliveira MDL, Campos AR, Matos A, et al. Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) and Viral Detection in Polluted Surface Water: A Valuable Tool for COVID-19 Surveillance—A Brief Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020, 17(24): 9251.
  37. Schellenberg T, Subramanian V, Ganeshan G, et al. Wastewater discharge standards in the evolving context of urban sustainability–The case of India. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 2020, 8: 30.
  38. Rahimiyan R. Investigation of the Process of using Sludge Contaminated with Crude Oil in the Effluent of Chemical Industries. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, 2020, 3(4): 329- 339.
  39. Grimason AM, Smith HV, Thitai WN, et al. Occurrence and removal of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in Kenyan waste stabilisation ponds. Water Science and Technology, 1993, 27(3-4): 97-104.
  40. Zimmo O. Nitrogen transformations and removal mechanisms in algal and duckweed waste stabilisation ponds. CRC Press, 2003.
  41. Jedwab R, Khan AM, Damania R, et al. Pandemics, Poverty, and Social Cohesion: Lessons from the Past and Possible Solutions for COVID-19 (No. 2020-13).
  42. da Silva FJG and Gouveia RM. Global population growth and industrial impact on the environment. In Cleaner Production (pp. 33-75). Springer, Cham, 2020.
  43. Karki M. Investigation of the factors enabling the development of medical waste treatment in Kathmandu, Nepal, 2020.
  44. Marques RC and Miranda J. Sustainable tariffs for water and wastewater services, 2020.
  45. Pourmalek F, Hemami MR, Janani L, et al. Rapid review of COVID-19 epidemic estimation studies for Iran. BMC public health, 2021, 21(1): 1-30.