Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

Measuring university performance in Tanzania: A comparative analysis of market orientation scales

Main Article Content

Ramadhani Kitwana Dau corresponding author
Huda Ahmed Yussuf


This study makes a comparison between a well- established tool for measuring market orientation (MKTOR) with a new tool especially designed for measuring university performance, i.e., University MARKOR. Data were collected from 212 private and public universities across Tanzania and were an analyzed using AMOS 22.  A response rate of 58.2% was achieved and considered adequate.  The findings show that both scales demonstrated good model fit. Consistent with previous studies University MARKOR has demonstrated superior psychometric properties than MKTOR.Strong leadership is needed at universities in order to identify new sources of funding and reduce their dependence on traditional sources such as school fees, subventions and grants. A major contribution of this study is that it is the first ever study in Africa which is pan territorial involving both private and public universities that has tested the robustness of market orientation scales.

market orientation, MKTOR, University MARKOR, Tanzania

Article Details

How to Cite
Dau, R. K., & Yussuf, H. A. (2022). Measuring university performance in Tanzania: A comparative analysis of market orientation scales. International Journal of Arts and Humanities, 3(1), 118-130.


  1. Baber, R., & Upadhyay, Y. (2015). Examining the role of competition intensity as moderator on market orientation and performance relationship in private universities. South Asia Journal of Management, 22(1), 97-113.
  2. Cano, C. R., Carrillat, F. A., & Jaramillo, F. (2004). A meta-analysis of the relationship between market orientation and business performance: evidence from five continents. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(2), 179-200.
  3. Caruana, A., Ramaseshan, B., & Ewing, M. T. (1998a). Do universities that are more market oriented perform better? International Journal of Public Sector Management, 11(1), 55-70.
  4. Caruana, A., Ramaseshan, B., & Ewing, M. T. (1998b). The market orientation-performance link: some evidence from public sector and universities. Journal of Non Profit and Public Sector Marketing, 6(1), 63-82.
  5. Chaudhry, N. I., Mahesar, H. A., Ansari, M. A., & Ali, M. (2016). Impact of market orientation on the performance of private universities in Pakistan. International Research Journal of Arts, & Humanities, 44(44), 21-32.
  6. Dawes, J. (1999). The relationship between subjective and objective company performance measures in market orientation research: further empirical evidence, Marketing Bulletin. Department of Marketing, Massey University, 10(3), 65-75.
  7. Deshpandé, R., & Farley, J. U. (1998). Measuring market orientation: generalization and synthesis. Journal of Market-Focused Management, 2(3), 213-232.
  8. Deshpande, R., & Farley, J. U. (2004). Organizational culture, market orientation, innovativeness, and firm performance: an international research odyssey. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(1), 3-22.
  9. Dess, G. G., & Robinson Jr, R. B. (1984). Measuring organizational performance in the absence of objective measures: the case of the privately‐held firm and conglomerate business unit. Strategic Management Journal, 5(3), 265-273.
  10. Ellis, P. D. (2006). Market orientation and performance: a meta‐analysis and cross‐national comparisons. Journal of Management Studies, 43(5), 1089-1107.
  11. Farrell, M.A., & Oczkowski, E. (1997). An analysis of the MKTOR and MARKOR measures of market orientation: an Australian perspective. Marketing Bulletin, 8(3), 30-40.
  12. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
  13. Fortson, B. L., Scotti, J. R., Ben, K. S. D., & Chen, Y. C. (2006). Reliability and validity of an Internet traumatic stress survey with a college student sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(5), 709-720.
  14. Gaski, J. F., (1986). Interrelations among a channel entity's power sources: Impact of the exercise of reward and coercion on expert, referent, and legitimate power sources. Journal of Marketing, 23, 62-77.
  15. Gray, B., Matear, S., Boshoff, C., & Matheson, P. (1998). Developing a better measure of market orientation. European Journal of Marketing, 32(9/10), 884-903.
  16. Gupta, V. K., Atav, G., & Dutta, D. K. (2019). Market orientation research: a qualitative synthesis and future research agenda. Review of Managerial Science, 13(4), 649-670.
  17. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis: 7th Edition, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburg Gate, Harlow, Essex, England.
  18. Hampton, G. M. (2007). Exploring market orientation and performance in the university, Building knowledge and skills in the 21st Century: fulfilling the mission of marketing education, Marketing Educators' Association Conference Proceedings, San Antonio, Texas, 4-8.
  19. Harris, L. C. (2001). Market orientation and performance: objective and subjective empirical evidence from UK companies. Journal of Management Studies, 38(1), 17-43.
  20. Harrison-Walker, L. J. (2001). The measurement of a market orientation and its impact on business performance. Journal of Quality Management, 6(2), 139-172.
  21. Hemsley-Brown, J., & Oplatka, I. (2010). Market orientation in universities: a comparative study of two national higher education systems. International Journal of Educational Management, 24(3), 204-220.
  22. Hidayati, A. (2020). Performance and competitiveness of private universities in Bengkulu province. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 3(1), 26-36.
  23. Jacob, M. Lundqvist, M., & Hellsmark, H. (2003). Entrepreneurial transformations in the Swedish University system: the case of Chalmers University of Technology. Research Policy, 32(9), 1555-1568.
  24. Ketokivi, M. M., & Schroeder R. G. (2004). Perceptual measures of performance: fact or fiction? Journal of Operations Management, 22(3), 247-264.
  25. Khalifa, A., S. (2010). Rethinking the current dominant approach to business school strategy. European Business Review, 22(6), 591-607.
  26. Khuwaja F. M., Umrani, W. A., Shaikh, S. S., Ahmed, A., & Shar, S. (2019), University MARKOR: a context-specific scale to measure market-orientation in Universities. SAGE Open, 9(2), 1-11.
  27. Kirca, A. H., Jayachandran, S., & Bearden, W. O. (2005). Market orientation: a meta-analytic review and assessment of its antecedents and impact on performance. Journal of Marketing, 69(2), 24-41.
  28. Kohli, A. K., & Jaworski, B. J. (1990). Market orientation: the construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. Journal of Marketing, 54(2), 1-18.
  29. Kohli, A. K., Jaworski, B. J., & Kumar, A. (1993). MARKOR: a measure of market orientation". Journal of Marketing Research, 30(4), 467-477.
  30. Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
  31. Loomis, D. K., & Paterson, S. (2018). A comparison of data collection methods: mail versus online surveys. Journal of Leisure Research, 49(2), 133-149.
  32. Ma, J., & Todorovic, Z. (2011). Making universities relevant: market orientation as a dynamic capability within institutions of higher learning. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 15(2), 1-15.
  33. Mavondo, F. T.,, & Farrell, M. A. (2000). Measuring market orientation: are there differences between business marketers and consumer marketers? Australian Journal of Management, 25(2), 223-244.
  34. Meier, K. J., & O'Toole, L. J. (2013). Subjective organizational performance and measurement error: Common source bias and spurious relationships. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 23(2), 429-456.
  35. Mîndrilã, D. (2010). Maximum likelihood (ML) and diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) estimation procedures: a comparison of estimation bias with ordinal and multivariate non-normal data. International Journal of Digital Society, 1(1), 60-66.
  36. Modi, P., & Sahi, G. K. (2018). The meaning and relevance of internal market orientation in nonprofit organisations. The Service Industries Journal, 38(5-6), 303-320.
  37. Mokoena, B. A. (2019a). A comparative analysis of MARKOR and MKTOR scales of market orientation on university performance among universities of technology in South Africa. International Journal of Business and Management Studies, 11(1), 16-37.
  38. Mokoena, B. A. (2019b). The relationship selected market orientation dimensions and organizational performance within universities in South Africa. Studia Universitatis Bases-Bolyai Oeconomica, 64(3), 54-68.
  39. Mokoena, B. A., & Dhurup, M. R. (2017). Effects of market orientation and barriers to market orientation on university performance: a study of Universities of Technology in South Africa. International Business and Economics Research Journal, 16(1), 17-29.
  40. Mokoena, B. A., Mafini, C., & Dhurup M. (2015). Navigating the influence of market orientation on university performance. Studia Universitatis Bases-Bol yai Oeconomica, 60(3), 22-40.
  41. Muya, F., & Tundui, H. (2020). Marketing orientation and students' retention in Tanzania higher learning institutions: mediating role of institutional reputation. International Journal of Arts and Humanities, 9(2), 214-232.
  42. Narver, J. C., & Slater, S. F. (1990). The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing, 54(4), 20-35.
  43. Niculescu, M., Xu, B., Hampton, G. M., & Peterson, R. T. (2013). Market orientation and its measurement in universities. Administrative Issues Journal: Education, Practice and Research, 3(2), 72-87.
  44. Novick, M. R., & Lewis, C. (1967). Coefficient alpha and the reliability of composite measurements. Psychometrika, 32(1), 1-13.
  45. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory McGraw-Hill Book Company, INC New York.
  46. Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Lee, J-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioural research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.
  47. Ross, M., Debra, G., & We, S. (2013). Come on higher Ed . . . Get with the program! A study of market orientation in international student recruitment. Educational Review, 65(2), 219-240.
  48. Sefnedi, S. (2017). The market orientation and performance relationship: an empirical study in private universities. DeRe Ma Jurnal Manajemen, 12(1), 19-39.
  49. Sekaran U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach, 7th Ed., John Wiley, & Sons Ltd.
  50. Shah, M., Nair, C. S. and Bennett, L. (2013). Factors influencing student choice to study at private higher education institutions. Quality Assurance in Education, 21(4), 402-416.
  51. Sin, L. Y. M., Tse, A. C. B., Heung, V. C. S., & Yim, F. H. K. (2005). An analysis of the relationship between market orientation and business performance in the hotel industry. Hospitality Management, 24, 555-577.
  52. Sin, L. Y. M., Tse, A. C. B., Yau, O. H. M., Lee, J. S. Y., & Chow, R. (2002). The effect of relationship market orientation on business performance in a service-oriented economy. Journal of Service Marketing, 16(7), 656-676.
  53. Singh, S., Darwish, T. K., & Potočnik, K. (2016). Measuring organizational performance: a case for subjective measures. British Journal of Management, 27(1), 214-224.
  54. Svensson, G., & Wood, G. (2007). Are university students really customers? When illusion may lead to delusion for all! International Journal of Educational Management, 21(1), 17-28.
  55. Swoboda, W. J., Mühlberger, N., Weitkunat, R., & Schneeweiß, S. (1997). Internet surveys by direct mailing: an innovative way of collecting data. Social Science Computer Review, 15(3), 242-255.
  56. Vallen, H., Albaum, G., Wiley, J., James, B., & Thirkell, P. (2009). Applying theory to structure respondents' stated motivations for participating in web surveys. Qualitative Market Research, 12(4), 428-442.
  57. Venkatraman, N., & Ramanujam, V. (1987). Measurement of business economic performance: an examination of method convergence. Journal of Management, 13(1), 109-122.
  58. Zebal, M. A., & Goodwin, D. R. (2012). Market orientation and performance in private universities. Marketing Intelligence, & Planning, 30(3), 339-357.