Open Access Peer-reviewed Review

Etiology of breast development and asymmetry

Main Article Content

Elisabeth N. Adkins
Shaina Anderson
Trevor McKoy
Nakachi Maduka
Tarun Goswami corresponding author


Etiology of breast development and asymmetry is a fascinating research topic physiologically as well as pathophysiology from a certain condition. The shape, contour, and size of the breast are unique to each female. These factors are influenced by genetics, weight, exercise, menstruation cycles, pregnancy, menopause status, and age. An attempt was made to research the breast development at fetal development and transitioning into adulthood and menopause. Additionally, we compare breast development in males to the developments in females. Although breast asymmetry is experienced by all women, it ranges from grossly undetectable to the need for surgical intervention. It is thought that breast asymmetry has intrinsic and extrinsic factors that determine the type and the extent of asymmetry observed. Hormones at play and their effect on breast asymmetry throughout breast development has been charted. Breast asymmetry is most often secondary to benign breast disorders and unassociated with a risk for malignancy. As the perception of one’s body image is an integral part of self-confidence, breast asymmetry has the potential to affect every woman’s quality of life, regardless of the degree of asymmetry. Throughout this effort, our aim was to analyze and understand breast development in males and females, breast changes from the prepubertal to post-menopausal period, benign pathological changes, summarizing the etiologies of breast asymmetry, and their effects on quality of life. 

breast asymmetry etiology, quality of life, prenatal breast development, men’s health, gynecomastia

Article Details

How to Cite
Adkins, E. N., Anderson, S., McKoy, T., Maduka, N., & Goswami, T. (2022). Etiology of breast development and asymmetry. Advances in General Practice of Medicine, 4(1), 54-66.


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