Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

Main Article Content

Yanxi Zeng
Sen Wang
Lu Wei
Yingyu Cui corresponding author


Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of various health disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that PMBE may induce the apoptosis of hepatoma and colon cancer cells, and one of the potential mechanisms is by activating p53 to up-regulate the expression of p21. The P53/P21 signaling pathway is also one of the main mechanisms to regulate cell senescence. Therefore, we wonder if PMBE is able to induce hepatoma cells into senescence by inhibiting their growth. In the current study, the effects of PMBE on the viability of human hepatoma HepG2 cells were detected using an MTT assay. The phenotypes of HepG2 cells with PMBE treatment were detected with β-Galactosidase staining assay. The results revealed that the growth of HepG2 cells was inhibited by PMBE at dose-dependent manner when PMBE concentration is above 50 µg/ml, furthermore, PMBE could induce HepG2 cells into senescence at concentration of 40 µg/ml. These findings indicated that PMBE significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells and induced them into senescence, while the potential mechanism and its safety in normal cells require further investigation.

Pinus massoniana bark extract, cell senescence, HepG2 cells

Article Details

How to Cite
Zeng, Y., Wang, S., Wei, L., & Cui, Y. (2020). Primary investigation on effects of Pinus massoniana bark extract inducing senescence of hepatoma HepG2 cells. Current Cancer Reports, 2(1), 34-40.


  1. Li YY, Feng J, Zhang XL, et al. Pine bark extracts: nutraceutical, pharmacological, and toxicological evaluation. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 2015, 353(1): 9-16.
  2. Cui YY, Xie H, Qi KB, et al. Effects of Pinus massoniana bark extract on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells. World journal of gastroenterology, 2005, 11(34): 5277-5282.
  3. MendozaWilson AM, Castro-Arredondo SI and Balandr´an- Quintana RR. Computational study of the structure-free radical scavenging relationship of procyanidins. Food Chemistry, 2014, 161(15): 155-161.
  4. Chen L, Yan FF, Chen WB, et al. Procyanidin from peanut skin induces antiproliferative effect in human prostate carcinoma cells DU145. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 2018, 288: 12-23.
  5. Salinas-S´anchez OD, Jim´enez-Ferrer E, S´anchez-S´anchez V, et al. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of a Polymeric Proanthocyanidin from Serjania schiedeana. Molecules, 2017, 22(6): E863.
  6. Marn L, Migu´elez EM, Villar CJ, et al. Bioavailability of dietary polyphenols and gut microbiota metabolism: antimicrobial properties. BioMed research international, 2015, 2015: 1-18.
  7. Smeriglio A, Barreca D, Bellocco E, et al. Proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins: occurrence, dietary intake and pharmacological effects. British Journal of Pharmacology, 2017, 174(11): 1244-1262.
  8. Strathearn KE, Yousef GG, Grace MH, et al. Neuroprotective effects of anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts in cellular models of Parkinsons disease. Brain Research, 2014, 1555: 60-77.
  9. Dong XQ, Zou B, Zhang Y, et al. Preparation of A-type proanthocyanidin dimers from peanut skins and persimmon pulp and comparison of the antioxidant activity of A-type and B-type dimers. Fitoterapia, 2013, 91: 128-139.
  10. Wu CL, Feng DR, Ma HL, et al. Effect of Pinus massoniana bark extract on IFN--induced ICAM-1 expression in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2009, 122(1): 48-53.
  11. Feng J, Zhang XL, Li YY, et al. Pinus massoniana Bark Extract: Structure-Activity Relationship and Biomedical Potentials. The American journal of Chinese medicine, 2016, 44(8): 1559-1577.
  12. Cui YY, Xie H and Wang JF. Broad-spectrum Inhibition of Pinus Massoniana Bark Extract (PMBE) from Human Cancer Cells Cultured in vitro. Progress In Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2004, 9: 418-421.(in Chinese)
  13. Ma HL, Lai F, Xie H, et al. Involvement of the Bcl-2 family members in Pinus massoniana bark extract induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Phytotherapy research, 2008, 22(11): 1472-1476.
  14. Ma HL, Liu B, Feng DR, et al. Pinus massoniana bark extract selectively induces apoptosis in human hepatoma cells, possibly through caspase-dependent pathways. International journal of molecular medicine, 2010, 25(5): 751- 759. 00000401
  15. Lowe SW, Cepero E and Evan G. Intrinsic tumour suppression. Nature, 2004, 432(7015): 307-315.
  16. Campisi J. Aging, cellular senescence, and cancer. Annual review of physiology, 2013, 75: 685-705.
  17. Campisi J and Fabrizio DDF. Cellular senescence: when bad things happen to good cells. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 2007, 8(9): 729-740.
  18. Sager R. Senescence as a mode of tumor suppression. Environmental health perspectives, 1991, 93: 59-62.
  19. Cui YY. Cancer, Mankind’s Challenge. Current Cancer Reports, 2019, 1(1): 1-5.
  20. Wu DC, Li S, Yang DQ, et al. Effects of Pinus massoniana bark extract on the adhesion and migration capabilities of HeLa cells. Fitoterapia, 2011, 82(8): 1202-1205.
  21. Leontieva OV, Natarajan V, Demidenko ZN, et al. Hypoxia suppresses conversion from proliferative arrest to cellular senescence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, 109(33): 13314-13318.
  22. Cui YY, Xie H andWang JF. Potential biomedical properties of Pinus massoniana bark extract. Phytotherapy research, 2005, 19(1): 34-38.
  23. Liu J, Bai J, Jiang GQ, et al. Anti-Tumor Effect of Pinus massoniana Bark Proanthocyanidins on Ovarian Cancer through Induction of Cell Apoptosis and Inhibition of Cell Migration. PloS one, 2015, 10(11): e0142157.
  24. Cui YY, Wang HB, Xie H, et al. Primary exploration of the mechanism of Pinus massoniana bark extract inhibiting the growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro. Journal of China Agricultural University, 2004, 12(4): 7-14.
  25. Collado M, Blasco MA and Serrano M. Cellular senescence in cancer and aging. Cell, 2007, 130(2): 223-233
  26. Kang TW, Yevsa T, Woller N, et al. Senescence surveillance of pre-malignant hepatocytes limits liver cancer development. Nature, 2011, 479(7374): 547-551.
  27. Wang M, Ma HL, Liu B, et al. Pinus massoniana bark extract protects against oxidative damage in L-02 hepatic cells and mice. The American journal of Chinese medicine, 2010, 38(5): 909-919.