Open Access

Peer-reviewed

Review

Main Article Content

Stanislas Maseb-A-Mwang Sulu
Olivier Mukuku corresponding author
Stanislas Okitotsho Wembonyama

Abstract

Breast cancer (BC) is a major health problem with an increasing trend in prevalence and mortality worldwide. It is the most common of female cancers in the world, and thus ranks first in both developed and developing countries. Current knowledge on the epidemiology and biological aspects of breast cancer in women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo remains insufficient and poorly documented. Given the trend towards urbanization of the Congolese population, it is likely that current data will change in the coming decades, due to a foreseeable change in risk factors for the disease. Therefore, the establishment of a cancer registry is necessary in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) health system for better epidemiological monitoring of cancer and surveillance data necessary for the development of cancer control policies and their integration into primary health care. Strategies that include building local capacity in terms of human resources, equipment and technology transfer could lead to new concepts and therapies adapted to the Congolese geographical context.

Keywords
breast cancer, epidemiology, women, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

Article Details

How to Cite
Sulu, Stanislas, Olivier Mukuku, and Stanislas Wembonyama. 2022. “Breast Cancer in Women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Current State of Knowledge”. Current Cancer Reports 4 (1), 128-32. https://doi.org/10.25082/CCR.2022.01.001.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. International Journal of Cancer, 2010, 127(12): 2893-2917. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25516
  2. Organisation Mondiale de la Sant´e. Cancer du sein. Consult´e le 5 mars 2022 et accessible. https://www.who.int/fr/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/breast-cancer
  3. Azamjah N, Soltan-Zadeh Y and Zayeri F. Global trend of breast cancer mortality rate: a 25-year study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 2019, 20(7): 2015. https://doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.7.2015
  4. Farmer P, Frenk J, Knaul FM, et al. Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: a call to action. The Lancet, 2010, 376(9747): 1186-1193. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61152-X
  5. Gakunga R and Parkin DM. African Cancer Registry N. Cancer registries in Africa 2014: A survey of operational features and uses in cancer control planning. International Journal of Cancer, 2015, 137: 2045-2052. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29668
  6. Adeloye D, Sowunmi OY, Jacobs W, et al. Estimating the incidence of breast cancer in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Global Health, 2018, 8(1): 010419. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.08.010419
  7. Jedy-Agba E, McCormack V, Adebamowo C, et al. Stage at diagnosis of breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 2016, 4(12): 923-935. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30259-5
  8. The World Bank. Doing Business - Measuring Business Regulations. Accessed: March 7th 2022. https://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/business-enabling-environment
  9. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Factbook. Accessed: July 7th 2020. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/congo-democratic-republic-of-the
  10. Bruneau JC. Les nouvelles provinces de la République Démocratique du Congo : construction territoriale et ethnicités. L’Espace Politique 2009; Vol. 7. https://doi.org/10.4000/espacepolitique.1296
  11. Mbala LN, Mbanzulu PN, Kamba D, et al. Profil épidémiologique, clinique et histopathologique du cancer du sein à l’hôpital Saint Joseph à Kinshasa- Limete. Congo M´edical, 2006, 4: 715-721.
  12. Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Profils des pays pour le cancer : République Démocratique du Congo. OMS; 2014. Consult´e le 8 mars 2022. https://www.who.int/cancer/country-profiles/cod_fr.pdf?ua=1
  13. Mashinda KD, Kayembe KP and Mapatano MA. Prévalence du cancer en République Démocratique du Congo: Donn´ees anatomopathologiques recueillies aux Cliniques universitaires de Kinshasa et `a l’Hˆopital Provincial General de Reference de Kinshasa. Annals of African Medicine, 2012, 5: 1087-1093.
  14. Katumbayi JCK, Muyulu NP, Zakayi PK, et al. Caractéristiques épidémiologiques et histopathologiques de 1280 cancers du col utérin à Kinshasa. Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie, 2022, 50(1): 53-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gofs.2021.07.001
  15. Lukanu NP, Ntontolo NP, Diakengua V, et al. Epidemiology of Cancer in Rural Congo: Case of IME Kimpese Hospital, Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 2021, 12: 127-135. https://doi.org/10.4236/jct.2021.123014
  16. Kingu M, Rahma T, Nlandu M, et al. Profil épidemio-clinique et moléculaire du cancer du sein dans les Hôpitaux de la ville Kinshasa-RD Congo. Kisangani Medical, 2019, 9(1): 326-332.
  17. Mbala LN. Profil clinique, histologique et mol´eculaire du cancer mammaire chez la femme congolaise de Kinshasa. Th`ese d’agr´egation en M´edecine, Universit´e de Kinshasa, 2010.
  18. El Mhamdi SS, Bouanene I, Amel Mhirsi A, et al. Women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice about breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). Australian Journal of Primary Health, 2013, 19: 68-73. https://doi.org/10.1071/PY11123
  19. Serhier Z, Bendahhou K, Berahou H, et al. Connaissance des facteurs de risque du cancer du sein chez les ´etudiants en m´edecine de Casablanca. Revue d’ ´ Epid´emiologie et de Sant´e Publique, 2017, 65: S103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respe.2017.03.120
  20. Lasserre A, Gaillot J, Deutsch A, et al. Pr´evention des cancers en France : quel rˆole pour les professionnels de sant´e?. Bulletin du Cancer, 2017, 104(3): 237-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2016.11.014
  21. M´eriaux E, Colombi´e M and Houdebine S. Prise en charge du cancer du sein, avanc´ees et perspectives. M´edecine Nucl´eaire, 2014, 38(5): 299-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mednuc.2014.07.007
  22. Fleege NMG and Cobain EF. Breast Cancer Management in 2021: A Primer for for the obstetrics and gynecology. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2022.02.004
  23. Patel F and Sharma SC. Non-Surgical Management of Metastatic Breast Cancer and Palliative Care. In: Bose SM, Sharma SC, Mazumdar A, Kaushik R. (eds) Breast Cancer. Springer: Singapore, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-4546-4_23
  24. Jacot W, Romieu G and Lamy PJ. Cancer du sein m´etastatique : progr`es dans la prise en charge et limites actuelles. M´edecine Nucl´eaire, 2010, 34(1): 52-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mednuc.2009.11.009
  25. Martei YM, Pace LE, Brock JE, et al. Breast cancer in low-and middle-income countries: why we need pathology capability to solve this challenge. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 2018, 38(1): 161-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cll.2017.10.013
  26. Pace LE, Dusengimana JMV, Hategekimana V, et al. Benign and malignant breast disease at Rwanda’s first public cancer referral center. Oncologist, 2016, 21: 571-575. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2015-0388
  27. Nelson AM, Milner DA, Rebbeck TR, et al. Oncologic care and pathology resources in Africa: survey and recommendations. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2016, 34: 20-26. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.61.9767
  28. Adesina A, Chumba D, Nelson AM, et al. Improvement of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Oncology, 2013, 14: 152-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70598-3
  29. Pace LE, Mpunga T, Hategekimana V, et al. Delays in breast cancer presentation and diagnosis at two rural cancer referral centers in Rwanda. Oncologist, 2015, 20: 780-788. https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2014-0493
  30. Brinton L, Figueroa J, Adjei E, et al. Factors contributing to delays in diagnosis of breast cancers in Ghana, West Africa. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 2017, 162: 105-114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-016-4088-1
  31. Brinton LA, Awuah B, Nat Clegg-Lamptey J, et al. Design considerations for identifying breast cancer risk factors in a population-based study in Africa. International Journal of Cancer, 2017, 140: 2667-2677. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30688
  32. Abdulrahman GO Jr and Rahman GA. Epidemiology of breast cancer in Europe and Africa. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology, 2012, 2012: 915610. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/915610
  33. Rambau PF, Chalya PL, Manyama MM, et al. Pathological features of Breast Cancer seen in Northwestern Tanzania: A nine years retrospective study. BMC Research Notes, 2011, 4: 214. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-214
  34. Ibrahim NA and Oludara MA. Socio-demographic factors and reasons associated with delay in breast cancer presentation: A study in Nigerian women. Breast, 2012, 21: 416-418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2012.02.006
  35. Otieno ES, Micheni JN, Kimende SK, et al. Delayed presentation of breast cancer patients. East African Medical Journal, 2010, 87: 147-150. https://doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v87i4.62410