Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

Chemical fractionation and mobility factor of some heavy metals in refuse dumpsite soil in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria

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Ogochukwu J. Okakpu corresponding author
Patrice A. C. Okoye
Theresa U. Onuegbu


The geochemical forms of some heavy metals in refuse dump soils at Agu-Awka, Awka metropolis was studied in order to assess the mobility and bioavailability of the metals and hence their potential environmental risk. Exchangeable fraction (F1) contained the % fraction of 13.23% for Cd, 17.43% for Cr, 14.63% for Pb, 12.40% for Ni, 25.34% for Zn and 15.92% for Mn and these are in the order of Zn ˃ Cr ˃ Mn ˃ Pb ˃ Cd ˃ Ni. The carbonate fraction (F2) contained the % fraction of 17.08% for Cd, 17.84% for Cr, 9.20% for Pb, 28.32% for Ni, 13.76% for Zn and 8.49% for Mn and these are in the order of Ni ˃ Cr ˃ Cd ˃ Zn ˃ Pb ˃ Mn. Lead was predominantly associated with organic fraction with a result of 42.64% followed by chromium and manganese with the values of 22.48% and 20.00% respectively. The organic bound metals were in the abundance trend of Pb ˃ Cr ˃ Mn ˃ Cd ˃ Ni ˃ Zn. The highest values of metal in Fe-Mn oxide phase was manganese with a value of 32.18%, followed by cadmium with the value of 21.76%. The values of the other metals bound to this phase were 17.52%, 16.64%, 13.99% and 12.90% for Zn, Ni, Cr, and Pb respectively. Zinc with the value of 32.20% was predominantly associated with the residual fraction. The other metals bound to this phase had their values to be 30.13% for cadmium, 28.24% for chromium, 20.61% for lead, 29.41% for nickel and 23.37% for manganese. The mobility factor values of the metals were relatively low and they followed the order of Ni > Zn > Cr > Cd > Mn > Pb. That notwithstanding, soils from studied area should be carefully monitored to prevent the release of these metals due to redox reactions which may make them available to plants through absorption.

AAS, dumpsite, heavy metal, fractionation and mobility factor

Article Details

How to Cite
Okakpu, O. J., Okoye, P. A. C., & Onuegbu, T. U. (2024). Chemical fractionation and mobility factor of some heavy metals in refuse dumpsite soil in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria. Chemical Reports, 5(1), 268-274.


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