Vol 4 No 1 (2023)

Published: 2023-04-26

Abstract views: 559   PDF downloads: 160  

Page 229-236

Determination of some heavy metals and physicochemical properties in contaminated soils of open waste dumpsite in Awka, Anambra State

blankpage Ogochukwu J. Okakpu, Patrice A. C. Okoye, Theresa U. Onuegbu

The current study was designed for the assessment of cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, zinc and manganese and some physicochemical properties of soils collected from an open dumpsite in Awka, Nigeria. Soil samples at the depth (0-20 cm) were randomly collected at the dump field and were analyzed for physicochemical parameters and heavy metals using standard analytical methods. The results show that the main dumpsite had a high sand content (91.48% ± 0.26%) with a low silt 4.07% ± 0.03% and clay 4.65% ± 0.00%. The pH of the dumpsite soils was 6.07 ± 0.04 which is an acidic pH. Organic matter (%) and organic carbon (%) were 3.84 ± 0.06 and 2.23 ± 0.04 respectively. The EC (µS cm-1) was 476.9 ± 0.00 while the ECEC (cmol/kg) 18.93 ± 0.04. The bulk density (g cm-3) was 1.32 ± 0.00 and the porosity (%) of the dump soil was 41.40 ± 0.00. Total metal concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn and Mn were also analyzed and the concentrations of the heavy metals at dumpsitewas obtained (28.35 ± 0.21 to 149.10 ± 0.01 mg/kg). Metal contamination at dumpsite was in the order of Mn ˃ Zn ˃ Pb ˃ Cd ˃ Cr ˃ Ni. The study evidently indicates the presence of heavy metal contamination in the dumpsite even though some of them fell below the critical permissible concentration level. However, it is their accumulation and persistence in the soils of the dump site that may be a cause of concern for their surrounding environment and organisms.

Abstract views: 461   PDF downloads: 199  

Page 217-228

Modeling and simulation of absorption solar air conditioning to reduce energy consumption: A case of some cities in tropical region

blankpage Modeste Kameni Nematchoua, Rakotondrazano Yvon, Raminosoa Chrysostome

Buildings are one of the most important infrastructure sectors in today’s society. However, in Madagascar, most hotels, malls, hospitals use fossil fuels to meet energy needs, especially in the traditional air conditioning system. they consume a considerable amount of energy that has negative effects on the environment. The emergence of solar cooling systems is a very interesting solution to this problem because the use of renewable energies in this sector contributes to a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the environment. Madagascar is one of the countries with high renewable energy potential, notably solar energy estimated at 2000kWh/m².an.At present, the rate of exploitation of this potential for the operation of the solar absorption cooling system coupled with the building is still non-existent. This energy is clean, sustainable, profitable and environmentally friendly. This is the main objective of this work which uses this energy source to ensure thermal comfort in a building in Madagascar and contributes to the development of this system. The TRNSYS software helped us to model and simulate this system.  To do this, first we will select 4 big cities of the big island, a building of total surface 80 m² was used. Then, the hourly thermal loads of this building for the whole year were simulated using the TRNbuild sub-program using meteorological data for a typical year of the selected cities. The dimensions of the components of the solar absorption air conditioning system were obtained using the maximum loads of the building. The results of the simulations show, the system meets the cooling load needs of the building with the climatic conditions of each selected city.

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Page 209-216

Evaluation of selected physicochemical properties of River Otamiri, Imo State

blankpage Victor C. Eze, Valentine I. Onwukeme, Josephat O. Ogbuagu, Chiedozie C. Aralu, Cecilia N. Aduaka, Nkechinyere J. Okoro

Surface water monitoring is essential, especially when the water is normally used for industrial, agricultural, and domestic purposes. The study determined the physicochemical properties of the River Otamiri using the American Public Health Association standard methods for water analysis. In this study, river water samples were collected five times during the dry season from four sampling points (WSP-1, WSP-2, WSP-3 and WSP-4) along the watercourse of the river in Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State. The levels of the selected physicochemical parameters were compared with the National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) guidelines. The findings showed that the pH (4.99±0.11 – 6.30±0.08), dissolved oxygen (4.16±0.01 – 6.45±0.03), total hardness (17.10±1.78 – 27.80±2.54), chloride (68.30±0.58 – 91.90±0.64), and sulphate (39.55±3.32 – 51.21±2.11) were below the acceptable limit of the National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). However, electrical conductivity (1116±29.75 – 1419±28.54), turbidity (18.90±2.81 – 31.70±8.13) and nitrate (45.50±3.06 – 69.90±2.11, except in water sample point-4) were above the recommended limit according to the NSDWQ guideline, while temperature levels (26.90±0.04 – 28.40±0.02) were within the acceptable limit. The study concludes that the River Otamiri is contaminated. It is therefore advisable to purify water from the river before use for domestic and industrial purposes.

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Page 198-208

A qualitative study on the morbidity experiences of under-five children in oil spill communities

blankpage Pearl Abereton, Best Ordinioha, Jacob Mensah-Attipoe, Oluyemi Toyinbo

Introduction: Under-five years old (U5) children that reside in oil spill communities are exposed to various pollutants, and therefore are prone to respiratory symptoms and diseases. This study aimed to develop a deeper understanding on the lived experiences of U5 children residing in these communities.
Methods: The study was done in August, 2022 , on eleven caregivers/parents of U5 children, aged 26-45 years old via purposive sampling. This study utilized a phenomenological research design through in-depth interviews and audio recordings.
Results: Findings revealed that numerous oil spills have occurred, and are still occurring. According to the respondents, these spills are caused majorly by poor maintenance of old, rusted pipelines of oil companies; and pipeline vandalism, leading to land, water and air pollution. Results also showed that these spills have led to several adverse respiratory health (RH) experiences in U5, including cough, catarrh, chest pain and other health emergencies that have resulted in frequent hospital visitations and admissions like difficulty/fast breathing, pneumonia, hemoptysis, exacerbation of previously existing conditions, asthma development, etc. The destruction of their source of livelihood, have contributed to worsening these symptoms.
Conclusion: U5 children living in crude oil polluted areas are burdened with a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases. Implementation of already existing regulatory laws on oil pollution, prompt clean-up of oil spills, provision of standard health facilities, and trained health personnels, were some of the measures recommended to curb the menace of crude oil spills and its RH effects.

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Page 186-197

Potentially toxic element contamination and risk assessment of borehole water within a landfill in the Nnewi metropolis

blankpage Chiedozie C. Aralu, Patrice A. C. Okoye, Hillary O. Abugu, Victor C. Eze, Helen O. Chukwuemeka-Okorie

Borehole water has been used as a vital source of water for many communities. The pollution of these boreholes by potentially toxic elements using unlined solid waste dumpsites has posed a significant risk to the populace living around the dumpsite. This study investigates the environmental impact of potentially toxic elements on borehole water within the vicinity of an unlined dumpsite in the Nnewi metropolis. The upstream and downstream samples (16 each) were collected in wet and dry seasons. The potentially toxic elements analysis wasperformed using the methods of the American Public Health Association (APHA) under the required conditions. The quality of the boreholes was assessed using the World Health Organisation (WHO) acceptable limits for drinking water. The risk assessment was estimated for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks using ingestion and dermal routes. The results show that the borehole water wascontaminated with potentially toxic elements through leachate infiltration, which exceeded the WHO permissible limits for drinking water at both locations and seasons. The upstream borehole samples were more contaminated than the downstream samples for both seasons, due to their proximity to the pollution source. The hazard indices of the ingestion and dermal routes showed that the borehole water poses serious cancer and non-cancer health risks for both locations. The results revealed that children are more susceptible to cancer and non-carcinogenic health threats than adults for both locations and seasons. The pollution indices of borehole water for wet season (9.028 and 5.728) and dry season (7.107 and 5.328) for upstream and downstream samples respectively, were polluted and the pollution was higher in the wet season. The borehole water samples were unsuitable for drinking water and should be treated before use.