Drug delivery with nanoparticulate carriers is a new and upcoming research area that is making major changes within the pharmaceutical industry. Nanoparticulate carriers are discussed, particularly, engineered nanoparticulate carriers used as drug delivery systems for targeted delivery. Nanoparticulate carriers that are used for drug delivery systems include polymers, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes, ceramics, metals, and various forms of biological materials. The properties of these nanoparticulate carriers are very advantageous for targeted drug delivery and result in efficient drug accumulation at the targeted area of interest, reduced drug toxicity, reduced systemic side effects, and more efficient use of the drug overall. Nanoparticlulate carriers are effective in passing various biological impediments and have a relatively high cellular uptake compared to that of microparticulate carriers, which allows for the drug agent to reach a targeted cell or tissue. The use of nanoparticulate carriers for drug delivery results in a prolonged and sustained release of the drug which ultimately reduces the cost and amount of doses that need to be administered to the patient. Currently, there is extensive research of nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for challenging disease treatment cases such as cancer, HIV, and diabetes.