Sustainability is an important factor of ecological civilization, and a reasonable sustainable development system is the basis for its enhancement. Based on the theory of sustainability science, we designed an evaluation index system comprising three subsystems: resource, environment and socio-economic development. Based on data from 30 provinces and cities in China from 2014 to 2016, we used the entropy method to evaluate the sustainable development level of different regions. In addition, we also summarized and classified different regions from the perspective of spatial statistical. The results show that the socioeconomic system has the greatest influence on the regional sustainable development system, indicating that the healthy and rapid development of the social economy is very important in sustainable development. In addition, China's sustainable development level is relatively low and varies greatly among different regions. Therefore, on the one hand, the government should reasonably strengthen and optimize environmental regulation and encourage the public to participate in supervision. On the other hand, it is necessary to improve the co-governance mechanism of different regions' ecological environment; improving the co-governance mechanism will serve not only to establish the cross-regional coordinated development management of institutions at the national level but also to establish a benefit-sharing and interest-compensation mechanism and find a balance of interests between regions. Finally, we should strengthen legal construction and clarify the rights and obligations of all parties to guide cross-regional coordinated development in line with laws and regulations.