The wind at 50 m above ground level (a.g.l) was measured for 22 months. The mean wind speed predicted by Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) at Lapaha was 6.39 m/s and the power density were 279 W/m2. The prevailing wind direction at Lapaha site was East and Southeast direction with a low turbulence. The WAsP wind map indicated that Lapaha has a good wind potential for power production. A wind farm consisting of four Vergnet 275 kW wind turbines at Lapaha site is expected to pay itself back in 9 years with a Benefit to Cost Ratio (BCR) of 1.74, a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) in Tongan Pa’anga (TOP) of 0.10/kWh compared to TOP 0.86/kWh presently charged to domestic consumers. The expected internal rate of return (IRR) would be 50% and with a life time of 25 years. The expected cost saved from the wind farm is TOP 1.3 million per year, which is equivalent to 1.3 million liters of diesel saved, resulting in 535 tons less CO2 emitted annually. The proposed wind farm is expected to decrease diesel consumption by 20% annually.
Pressure is mounting globally for the discontinuation of the use of thermal coal and other carbonbased fuels for power generation. The pressure to shift power-generating fuel sources to cleaner propositions comes from many fronts, including from financial institutions that have removed funding options for new and existing coal projects, large investment houses that have discontinued coal equity investments from their portfolios, social movements that have heightened awareness and have created industrial and societal disruptions and, notably, scientists and other researchers who have pronounced the need to reduce carbon-rich energy sources for environmental reasons. However, despite this, thermal coal continues to play an important role in power generation in many regions around the world and will continue to do so for decades to come. This is because coal is an abundant mineral, the power-conversion technology is tried and tested and, comparatively, coal power generation tends to be a more affordable option when considered against numerous alternatives. This latter point excludes the cost impacts associated with carbon taxes. This paper specifically covers the relationship between the amount of CO2 produced from the combustion of thermal coal for power generation purposes and the additional heating effect, measured in degrees Celsius, that this CO2 creates. It also provides explicit and comparative figures relating to the world’s largest thermal coal consumers and hence the largest contributors to climate change relating to the combustion of thermal coal.
Sustainability is an important factor of ecological civilization, and a reasonable sustainable development system is the basis for its enhancement. Based on the theory of sustainability science, we designed an evaluation index system comprising three subsystems: resource, environment and socio-economic development. Based on data from 30 provinces and cities in China from 2014 to 2016, we used the entropy method to evaluate the sustainable development level of different regions. In addition, we also summarized and classified different regions from the perspective of spatial statistical. The results show that the socioeconomic system has the greatest influence on the regional sustainable development system, indicating that the healthy and rapid development of the social economy is very important in sustainable development. In addition, China's sustainable development level is relatively low and varies greatly among different regions. Therefore, on the one hand, the government should reasonably strengthen and optimize environmental regulation and encourage the public to participate in supervision. On the other hand, it is necessary to improve the co-governance mechanism of different regions' ecological environment; improving the co-governance mechanism will serve not only to establish the cross-regional coordinated development management of institutions at the national level but also to establish a benefit-sharing and interest-compensation mechanism and find a balance of interests between regions. Finally, we should strengthen legal construction and clarify the rights and obligations of all parties to guide cross-regional coordinated development in line with laws and regulations.
Global sea level rise (SLR) variations have undeniably begun to make an impact on highly vulnerable economies. These impacts of SLR are a key component of the projected economic damage of climate change, an important input to climate change policies and adaptive measures. This paper considers SLR projections and its impact on the economy and includes a consolidation of various related studies. Estimated global gross domestic product (GDP) loss by 2100 ranges from 0.3% to as high as of 9.3% (Hinkel et al. 2014; Pycroft, Abrell, and Ciscar 2015). Climate change impact should be addressed at the global level through a locally focused effort where education and acceptance by all stakeholders are crucial and warranted. Further, this paper tackles several adaptive strategies as a response to SLR which include retreat, accommodation, and protection. The retreat strategy simulates that SLR causes the loss of inundated land and incurs planned relocation (migration) costs above a certain sea level. The accommodation strategy allows usage of vulnerable areas or land and limits damage by flood-proofing or raising structures. Finally, the protection strategy projects that land will be protected from SLR damage by sea walls or other barriers of a certain height. On the other hand, Diaz (2016) estimates a median adaptation cost from migration at 16% of GDP under the least-cost strategy by 2050. In general, the education of and the acceptance by the concerned local community will be crucial in the successful implementation of SLR adaptation strategies, notwithstanding parallel mitigation efforts on a global scale.
Cyclical economy's financial turnover has investment and accumulation periods. During the investment period, innovative modernization of the economy is carried out by effective competent management, innovative science, creative education, qualified specialists and the high-tech industry. Ecological modernization of the economy gradually increases the solvent demand of the population and contributes to the emergence of new goods and services. The economy is smoothly moving into the accumulative period. Mass robotic production and sale of new goods and services begins. There is accumulation of the capital. Over time, the population is saturated with new goods, and the purchasing demand of the population is gradually decreasing. The economy is smoothly cyclically moving into the investment period of innovative ecological modernization of the economy. The financial turnover of the cyclical economy through reinvestment of its savings increases the rate of ecological modernization of production.