In recent years the economy of Bangladesh has increased significantly due to rapid industrialization. Despite economic prosperity, it causes serious damage to the environment by polluting water resources. Factors like discharging industrial effluents, urban runoff, and agricultural wastage are primarily responsible for polluting the water bodies in Bangladesh. This kind of pollution not only harms the environment but also severely affects human health, and in Bangladesh, nearly 80 percent of all diseases are related to water pollution, and arsenicosis is one of them. To prevent and control water pollution, the government has primarily enacted various laws and policies, including Environment Conservation Act 1995, Environment Protection Act (EPA) 1995, Environment Court Act 2000, and Bangladesh Water Act 2013. Despite numerous initiatives, legal loopholes, institutional weaknesses and lack of enforcement of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) are the main obstacles to preventing and controlling water pollution in Bangladesh. Therefore, this paper addresses the legal shortcomings and functions of respective bodies in preventing and controlling water pollution.