Legal institutional inefficiency and water pollution problem in Bangladesh
Main Article Content
In recent years the economy of Bangladesh has increased significantly due to rapid industrialization. Despite economic prosperity, it causes serious damage to the environment by polluting water resources. Factors like discharging industrial effluents, urban runoff, and agricultural wastage are primarily responsible for polluting the water bodies in Bangladesh. This kind of pollution not only harms the environment but also severely affects human health, and in Bangladesh, nearly 80 percent of all diseases are related to water pollution, and arsenicosis is one of them. To prevent and control water pollution, the government has primarily enacted various laws and policies, including Environment Conservation Act 1995, Environment Protection Act (EPA) 1995, Environment Court Act 2000, and Bangladesh Water Act 2013. Despite numerous initiatives, legal loopholes, institutional weaknesses and lack of enforcement of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) are the main obstacles to preventing and controlling water pollution in Bangladesh. Therefore, this paper addresses the legal shortcomings and functions of respective bodies in preventing and controlling water pollution.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Matter A, Ahsan M, Marbach M, et al. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Waste Management, 2015, 39: 321-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.01.032
- Ahmed F, Hasan S, Rana M S, et al. A conceptual framework for zero waste management in Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2022: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-022-04127-6
- Islam T, Li Y, Rob M M, et al. Microplastic pollution in Bangladesh: Research and management needs. Environmental Pollution, 2022, 308: 119697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119697
- Parvin F, Haque MM and Tareq SM. Recent status of water quality in Bangladesh: A systematic review, meta-analysis and health risk assessment. Environmental Challenges, 2022, 6: 100416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envc.2021.100416
- Arifuzzaman M, Hannan MA, Rahman MR, et al. Laws Regulating Water Pollution in Bangladesh. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2019, 3(1):15-24. https://doi.org/10.12691/jsa-3-1-3
- Issac MN and Kandasubramanian B. Effect of microplastics in water and aquatic systems. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2021, 28(16): 19544-19562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13184-2
- Mitrano DM, Wick P and Nowack B. Placing nanoplastics in the context of global plastic pollution. Nature Nanotechnology, 2021, 16(5): 491-500. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-021-00888-2
- Sangkham S, Faikhaw O, Munkong N, et al. A review on microplastics and nanoplastics in the environment: Their occurrence, exposure routes, toxic studies, and potential effects on human health. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2022, 181: 113832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113832
- Harrison R. Pollution: Causes, Effects and Control, (fourth ed.), RoyalSociety of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2001.
- Pandey S. Water pollution and health. Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ), 2006, 4(1): 128-134.
- DoE River Water Quality Report. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2014.
- East Pakistan Ordinance no V of 1970, Government of Pakistan.
- Alexandra C. ’A Review of Environmental Policy and Legislation in Bangladesh’ (Research Report, Section 2, Department for International Development, UK), 4, 2004.
- Momtaz S. Environmental Impact Assessment in Bangladesh: A Critical Review. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 2002, 22(2): 163-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-9255(01)00106-8
- Environment Conservation Act No 1, 1995.
- The EPA 1995 was enacted ‘to provide for conservation, improvement of environment standards and to control and mitigate the pollution of the environment’ (preamble).
- The Irrigation Act 1876 is the oldest act in relation to water resource management.
- The Pesticides Ordinance 1971, as amended by the Agricultural Pesticides (Amendment) Ordinance 1983, makes provisions for the regulation of import, manufacture, formation, sale, distribution and use of pesticides (Ordinance No II of 1971).
- The EIA Guidelines of Industries in Bangladesh, 1997.
- The Environment Court Act 2000 of Bangladesh.
- The constitution of Bangladesh, Article 18A, 31, 32.
- Dr. Mohiuddin Farooque v Bangladesh and Others(1995) WPNo 300.
- Karim ME, Taher MA and Ataul MK. Noise Pollution in Dhaka and the Constitutional Right to Life. Australian Journal of Asian Law, 2021, 21(2): 67-84. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3875921
- Dhaka Law Reports. Right to life includes ‘the enjoyment of pollution free water and air, improvement of public health’. 1996, 48: 438.
- Habib E. Management of Fisheries, Coastal Resources and the Coastal Environment in Bangladesh. International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manilla, Philippines, 1999, 95.
- Hassan D. Protecting the Marine Environment from Land-Based Sources of Pollution, Towards Effective International Cooperation. Ashgate publishing, 2006, 68.
- Aminuzzaman SM. Environment policy of Bangladesh: A case study of an ambitious policy with implementation snag. South Asia Climate Change Forum, organized by Monash Sustainability Institute, Monash University, Australia. 2010, 59: 1-18.
- Ahmad QK, Ahmed AU, Khan HR, et al. GBM regional water vision: Bangladesh perspectives. Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Region: A Framework for Sustainable Development, University Press Limited, Dhaka, 2001: 31-80.
- Rasul G and Chowdhury AKMJU. Equity and social justice in water resource management in Bangladesh. London: IIED, 2010.
- Kaniaru D and Kurukulasuriya L. Capacity Building in Environmental Law. In: Sun L, Kurukulasuriya L (eds), UNEP’s New Way Forward: Environmental Law and Sustainable Development, UNEP, 2001, 171: 172.