Gene regulatory studies are of significant importance in many scenarios such as mental illness. 21% of U.S adults experience mental illnesses including 1 in 4 active-duty military personnel. Mental health can be identified in the body by different biomarkers. These biomarkers potentially controlled by riboswitches, which are located in mRNA and switch “ON” or “OFF” depending on the concentration of a biomarker. In this research, a known riboswitch reengineered and its response in the presence of a biomarker investigated. We changed computationally PreQ1, a known riboswitch that has the smallest aptamer, and then experimentally tested against biomarkers, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), Serotonin, Cortisol, Dopamine, Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine. A total of 7 variant riboswitches were tested in this research, 4 created computationally discussed here and 3 experimentally not covered in this paper. The results from these variants showed that variants 1 and 2 had different responses to DHEA-S then the expected PreQ1 response. A dose response showed downward trend as DHEA-S concentration increased. In conclusion of this research, riboswitches can be re-engineered to have a different response to biomarkers at the same time keeping the same structure.
Cellulose fibres, cellulose nanofibers, cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose derivatives are all examples of cellulose-based materialsthat display superior characteristics with a number of desirable properties, including biodegradability, sustainability, biocompatibility, thermal properties , optical transparency, flexibility, high mechanical strength, high porosity,hydrophilicity, a large surface area and broad chemical modification capabilities. "Smart" materials based on cellulose created by the chemical changes and physical incorporation/blending techniques offer numerous advantages, most notably their intelligent responses to environmental stimuli. Conductive networks are formed in cellulose-based composite materials by combining or coating conductive materials with the cellulose components or by directly carbonising the cellulose materials. Numerous nanopaper-based optical sensing platforms are explained and how they can be tailored to exhibit plasmonic or photoluminescent features suitable for sensing applications using nanomaterials or as biomaterials. The responsiveness of these "smart" materials to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields and mechanical forces, among other parameters, is also reviewed, as were their applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials, smart membranes, etc.