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Rapson Gomezcorresponding author
Alasdair Vance
Vasileios Stavropoulos


The study examined the measurement invariance (configural, metric, scalar, and error variances) and factor mean scores equivalencies of a modified version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal Behavior Scale (SWAN-M) across ratings provided by mothers of clinic-referred children and adolescents, diagnosed with (N = 666) and without (N = 202) ADHD. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of these ratings provided support for the bi-factor model of ADHD [orthogonal general and specific factors for inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms].  Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the bi-factor model supported full measurement invariance. Findings also showed that for latent mean scores, the ADHD group had higher scores than the non-ADHD group for the ADHD general and IA specific factors. The findings indicate that observed scores (based on maternal ratings of the SWAN-M) are comparable, as they have the same measurement properties. The theoretical, psychometric and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

strengths and weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal Behavior Scale, factor structure, measurement invariance, children and adolescents, mother ratings

Article Details

How to Cite
Gomez, R., Vance, A., & Stavropoulos, V. (2019). Measurement invariance of maternal ratings of ADHD symptoms across clinic referred children’s with and without ADHD. Advances in Developmental and Educational Psychology, 1(1), 7-17.


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