Main Article Content
Research evidence on Social and Emotional Learning implementation at schools has long been recognized. Most of the research however, has been focused on cultivating explicit social and emotional skills and relatively scant attention has been given to those positive human qualities or virtues such as kindness. Current study aims to illuminate pre-service early childhood teachers’ conceptualization of kindness. Two hundred and nineteen pre-service students described their perceptions of kindness. Kindness was conceptualized as a range of acts and words indicating respect, understanding and emotional support, which promote personal development and healthy relationships. Teachers’ kindness specifically was perceived important in cultivating students’ personality and teacher-student relationships. The findings of the study contribute to the topic of kindness in education which is a promising but undervalued area of school-based programming.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Ashdown, D. M., & Bernard, M. E. (2012). Can explicit instruction in social and emotional learning skills benefit the social-emotional development, well-being, and academic achievement of young children? Early Childhood Education Journal, 39, 397-405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-011-0481-x
- Binfet, J. T. (2015). Not-so random acts of kindness: A guide to intentional kindness in the classroom. The International Journal of Emotional Education, 7(2), 49-62.
- Binfet, J. T., & Enns, C. (2018). Quiet kindness in school: Socially and emotionally sophisticated kindness flying beneath the radar of parents and educators. Journal of Childhood Studies, 43(2), 31-45. https://doi.org/10.18357/jcs.v43i2.18576
- Binfet, J. T., Gadermann, A, M., & Schonert-Reichl, K., A. (2016). Measuring kindness at school: Psychometric properties of a school kindness scale for children and adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 53(2), 111-126. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21889
- Binfet, J. T., & Gaertner, A. (2015). Children’s conceptualizations of kindness at school. Child Study, 40(3), 27-39. https://doi.org/10.18357/jcs.v40i3.15167
- Binfet, J. T., & Passmore, H. A. (2017). Teachers’ perceptions of kindness at school. The International Journal of Emotional Education, 9(1), 37-53. https://www.um.edu.mt/ijee
- Binfet, J. T., & Passmore, H. A. (2019). The who, what, and where of school kindness: Exploring students’ perspectives. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 34(1), 22-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573517732202
- Bloomberg, L. D., & Volpe, M. (2008). Completing your qualitative dissertation: A roadmap from beginning to end. Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452226613
- Buchanan, K. E., & Bardi, A. (2010). Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(3), 235-237. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540903365554
- Cekaite, A., & Kvist, M.H. (2017). The comforting touch: tactile intimacy and talk in managing childre’s distress. Research, Language and Social Interaction, 50, 109-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2017.1301293
- Datu, J.A., Wong, G. S.P., Rubie-Davies, C. (2021). Can kindness promote media literacy skills, self-esteem, and social self-efficacy among selected female secondary school students? An intervention study. Computers & Education, 161, 104062 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104062
- Denham, S.A. & Bassett, H.H. (2019). Early childhood teachers’ socialization of children’s emotional competence. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching and Learning, 12(1), 133-150. https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIT-01-2019-0007
- Denham, S. A., Bassett, H. H., & Wyatt, T. (2014). The socialization of emotional competence (pp.590-613). In Grusec, J. & Hastings, P. (Eds), The Handbook of Socialization, 2nd ed., Guilford Press.
- Denham, S. A., Bassett, H. H., & Zinsser, K. (2012). Early childhood teachers as socializers of young children’s emotional competence. Early Childhood Educational Journal, 40(3), 137-143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-012-0504-2
- Eiseberg, N. (1986). Altruistic emotion, cognition, and behavior. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
- Grining, C., L., Raver, C. C., Champion, K., Sardin, L., Metzger, M., Jones, S. M. (2010).Understanding and improving classroom emotional climate and behavior management in the “real world”: The role of Head Start Teachers’ psychological stressors. Early Education and Development, 2(1), 65-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280902783509
- Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72, 625-638. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00301
- Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15, 1227-1288. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732305276687
- Jerald, C. D. (2006). School culture: The hidden curriculum. The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 1-8.
- Jin, J., Mercer, S., Babic, S., & Mairitsch, A. (2021). ‘You just appreciate every little kindness’: Chinese language teachers’ wellbeing in the UK. System, 96, 102400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102400
- Kaplan, D. M., deBlois, M., Dominguez, V., & Walsh, M. E. (2016). Studying the teaching of kindness: A conceptual model for evaluating kindness education programs in school. Evaluation and Program Planning, 58, 160-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2016.06.001
- Krane, V., Ness, O., Holter-Sorensen, N., Karlsson, B., & Binder, P. (2017). “You notice that there is something positive about going to school”: how teachers’ kindness can promote positive teacherstudent relationships in upper secondary school. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 22(4), 377-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2016.1202843
- Kress, J. S., & Elias, M. J. (2020). Nurturing students’ character. Everyday teaching activities for Social-Emotional Learning. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429199875
- Layous, K., Nelson, K., Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K., A. & Lyubomirsky, S. (2012). Kindness counts: Prompting prosocial behavior in preadolescents boosts peer acceptance and well-being. Plos one, 7(12), e51380. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051380
- Lee, C. K. J., & Huang, J. (2021). The relations between students’ sense of school belonging, perceptions of school kindness and character strength of kindness. Journal of school psychology, 84, 95-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2020.12.001
- Morris, C. A., Denham, S. A., Bassett, H. H., & Curby, T. W. (2013). Relations among teachers’ emotion socialization beliefs and practices and preschoolers’ emotional competence. Early Education & Development, 24, 979-999. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2013.825186
- Pearson, F. G. (2017). Exploring education professionals’ perceptions of the changes in their contexts, students’ experiences, and educators’ experiences as a result of implementing the secret kindness. Dissertation. University of Nebraska.
- Poulou, M. (2017). The relation of teachers’ emotional intelligence and students’ social skills to students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties: A study of Greek preschool teachers’ perceptions. Early Education and Development, 28 (8), 996-1010. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2017.1320890
- Rowland, L., & Curry, O. S. (2019). A range of kindness activities boost happiness. The Journal of Social Psychology, 159(3), 340-343. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2018.1469461
- Saldana, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks. Sage.
- Seligman, M. E., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress. American Psychologist, 60, 410-421. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410
- Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Guffrey, S., & Higgins-D’Alessandro, A. (2013). A review of school climate research. Review of Educational Research, 83, 357-385. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654313483907
- Thomas, L. A., DeBellis, M. D., Graham, R., & LaBar, K.S. (2007). Development of emotional facial recognition in late childhood and adolescence. Developmental Science, 10, 547-558. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00614.x
- Triliva, S. & Author, M. (2006). Greek teachers’ understandings and constructions of what constitutes Social and Emotional Learning. School Psychology International, 27(3), 315-338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034306067303
- Wolcott, H. F. (1990). Transforming qualitative data: Description, analysis, and interpretation. Thousand Oaks: Sage.