Main Article Content
In this investigation, the degree to which differences were present between private elementary school principals at Small-size schools (i.e., less than 250 students) and private elementary school principals at Large-size schools (i.e., 250 or more students) in problem matters that occurred on their school campus was addressed. Data were acquired from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 Principal Survey. Statistically significant differences were revealed in four of the eight areas private elementary school principals rated in frequency as a problem matter that occurred on their school campus. Principals of Large-size schools emphasized statistically significant more problem matters in children bringing in or using illegal drugs, vandalism of school property, student bullying, and class cutting than principals of Small-size schools. Suggestions for future research and implications for policy and practice were made.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Bandura A. Social learning theory. New York, NY: General Learning Press. 1977.
- Lee T, Cornell D, Gregory A, et al. High suspension schools and dropout rates for Black and White students. Education and Treatment of Children, 2011, 34: 167-192. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2011.0014
- Payton J, Weissberg RP, Durlak JA, et al. The positive impact of social and emotional learning for kindergarten to eighth-grade students: Findings from three scientific reviews. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. 2008.
- Wang MT, Selman RL, Dishion TJ, et al. A tobit regression analysis of the covariation between middle school students’ perceived school climate and behavioral problems. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2010, 20: 274-286. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00648.x
- Catalano RF, Oesterle S, Fleming CB, et al. The importance of bonding to school for healthy development: Findings from the social development research group. Journal of School Health, 2004, 74: 252-261. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08281.x
- National Center for Education Statistics. Characteristics of private schools in the United States: Results from the 2015- 2016 Private School Universe Survey. 2017a. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017073.pdf
- Almulla MB. An investigation of teachers’ perceptions of the effects of class size on teaching. International Education Studies, 2005, 12: 33-42. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n12p33
- Leithwood K and Jantzi D. A review of empirical evidence about school size effects: A policy perspective. Review of Educational Research, 2009, 79: 464-490. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654308326158
- Musu-Gillette L, Zhang A, Wang K, et al. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2017. 2018. https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/iscs17.pdf
- Executive Office of the President. National Goals for Education. Washington, DC. ED319143. 1990.
- U.S. Department of Education. Every Student Succeeds Act. 2015. https://www.ed.gov/essa?src=rn
- Blase J, Blase J and Phillips DY. Handbook of school improvement: How high-performing principals create highperforming schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 2010. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483350349
- Allen N, Grigsby B and Peters ML. Does leadership matter? Examining the relationship among transformational leadership, school climate, and student achievement. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 2015, 10: 1- 22.
- DuFour R, DuFour R and Eaker R. Revisiting professional learning communities at work: New insights for improving schools. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press. 2009.
- Gershenson S and Langbein L. The effect of primary school size on academic achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 2015, 37: 135-155. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373715576075
- Goldkind L and Farmer GL. The enduring influence of school size and school climate on parents’ engagement in the school community. School Community Journal, 2013, 23: 223-244.
- Lunenburg FC and Ornstein AC. Educational administration: Concepts and practices (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 2012.
- National School Climate Center. What is school climate? 2018. https://www.schoolclimate.org/about/our-approach/what-is-school-climate
- Stewart J. Personalized learning: Hiring educators for the 21st century. Education Canada, 2012, 51-53.
- Downer JT, Rimm-Kaufman SE and Pianta RC. How do classroom conditions and children’s risk for school problems contribute to children’s behavioral engagement in learning? School Psychology Review, 2007, 36: 413-432.
- Greenwood CR, Horton BT and Utley CA. Academic engagement: Current perspectives on research and practice. School Psychology Review, 2002, 31: 328-349.
- Noltemeyer AL, Ward RM and Mcloughlin C. Relationship between school suspension and student out-comes: A metaanalysis. School Psychology Review, 2015, 44: 224-240. https://doi.org/10.17105/spr-14-0008.1
- Green RL. Practicing the art of leadership: A problem-based approach to implementing the ISLLC standards (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall. 2012.
- Hallinger P and Heck RH. Collaborative leadership and school improvement: Understanding the impact on school capacity and student learning. School Leadership and Management, 2010, 30: 329-351. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764032000122005
- Louis KS, Dretzke B and Wahlstrom K. How does leadership affect student achievement? Results from a national US survey. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 2010, 21: 315-336. https://doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2010.486586
- Danielson C. Teacher leadership that strengthens professional practice. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2006.
- Fullan M. The development of transformational leaders for educational decentralization. Toronto, Canada: Micheal Fullan. 2006.
- Leithwood K, Louis KS, Anderson S, et al. How leadership influences student learning. New York, NY: The Wallace Foundation. 2004.
- Louis KS, Leithwood K, Wahlstrom K, et al. Learning from leadership: Investigating the links to improved student learning. The Wallace Foundation. 2010. https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Investigating-the-Links-to-Improved-Student-Learning.pdf
- Gage NA, Scott T, Hirn R, et al. The relationship between teachers’ implementation of classroom management practices and student behavior in elementary school. Behavioral Disorders, 2017, 43: 302-315. https://doi.org/10.1177/0198742917714809
- Korpershoek H, Harms T, Boer H, et al. A meta-analysis of the effects of classroom management strategies and classroom management programs on students’ academic, behavioral, emotional, and motivational outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 2016, 86: 643-680. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315626799
- Oliver R, Wehby J and Reschly D. Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2011, 4: 1- 55. https://doi.org/10.4073/csr.2011.4
- Pianta RC, Hamre BK and Allen JP. Teacher-student relationships and engagement: Conceptualizing, measuring, and improving the capacity of classroom interactions. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 365-386). New York, NY: Springer. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_17
- Williford AP, Maier MF, Downer JT, et al. Understanding how children’s engagement and teachers’ interactions combine to predict school readiness. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2013, 34: 299-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2013.05.002
- Kern L and Clemens NH. Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 2007, 44: 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20206
- MacSuga-Gage AS and Gage NS. Student-level effects of increased teacher-directed opportunities to respond. Journal of Behavioral Education, 2015, 24: 273-288. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-015-9223-2
- Hattie J. Visible learning: A synthesis of 800 meta-analysis relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge. 2009. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203887332
- Johnson RB and Christensen L. Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches (5th ed.). Los Angeles, CA; Sage. 2014.
- Johnston SL. Improving the school environment to reduce school violence: A review of the literature. Journal of School Health, 2009, 79: 451-465. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2009.00435.x
- Leung A and Ferris JS. School size and youth violence. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2008, 65: 318- 333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2005.10.001
- Coleman JS. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 1988, 94: S95-S120. https://doi.org/10.1086/228943
- Gottfredson DC and DiPietro SM. School size, social capacity, and student victimization. Sociology of Education, 2011, 84: 69-89. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040710392718
- Akerlof GA and Kranton RE. Identity and schooling: Some lessons for the economics of education. Journal of Economic Literature, 2002, 40: 1167-1201. https://doi.org/10.1257/.40.4.1167
- Boccardo J, Schwartz AE, Stiefel L, et al. Beyond academics: Do small schools have better learning environments? Presentation at the APPAM 2012 Fall Conference, Baltimore, MD. 2012.
- Creswell JW. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2014. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr.12.1.82.s2
- National Center for Education Statistics. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten class of 2010-2011. 2017b. http://www.nces.ed.gov/ecls
- Slate JR and Rojas-LeBouef A. Calculating basic statistical procedures in SPSS: A self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. Ypsilanti, MI: NCPEA Press. 2011.
- Vogt WP. Dictionary of statistics and methodology: A nontechnical guide for the social sciences (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2005.
- Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1988.