Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) mediated by plant extracts has drawn many research interests due to its simple, cost-effective, and eco-friendly approach. However, the extracts derived from phytoestrogenic plants that produce high phenolic-based compounds exhibiting the estrogenic activity have not yet investigated. This work reported the comparison of ethanolic extracts derived from phytoestogenic Dendrolobium lanceolatum and non-phytoestrogenic Raphanus sativus to facilitate the green synthesis of AgNPs. The total phenolic content and the reducing activity of D. lanceolatum extract were significantly higher than those of R. sativus extract. In addition, the formation of AgNPs could detect in the reaction using D. lanceolatum extract, but not R. sativus extract, as determined by the characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak of AgNPs at 416 nm. The synthesized AgNPs were spherical with an average diameter of 74.60±17.11 nm, which their face-centered cubic structure of silver was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs exhibited the antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The results of this work, thus, suggested the potential uses of phytoestrogenic plants as a good source of reducing and stabilizing agents for the production of AgNPs and other metallic nanoparticles.
We report novel gold nanoparticles by green method for different fruit extracts have gaining greater attention due to its versatile properties in different applications. In this article, GNPs synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh fruit extract of punica granatum and fragaria. The optical properties, morphology and elemental analysis of samples was done by using) different characterization techniques like SEM EDX and UV-Visible spectroscopy Biocompatibility of GNPs was determined by ALT, AST, ALP, Urea, Creatinine tests and also to investigate the effects of prepared GNPs on the kidney and liver functions. The GNPs prepared by fruit extract of punica granatum have more effects on the rabbits than GNPs prepared from fragaria but this effect normalizes after three days which shows its biocompatibility. To explore the photocatalytic activity of the GNPs the photocatalytic degradation of MB dye is also investigated. The results revealed that GNPs prepared through green synthesis route are found to be efficient enhancement in the degradation of MB dye in visible region due to large surface area. These particles were more active in catalytic reduction due to their high surface energy and in bio-medical applications as biocompatibility.
Resultant gradient-information is introduced and applied to problems in chemical reactivity theory. This local measure of the structural information contained in (complex) wavefunctions of electronic states is related to the system overall kinetic energy combining the modulus (probability) and phase (current) contributions. The grand-ensemble representation of thermodynamic equilibria in open systems demonstrates the physical equivalence of the variational energetic and information principles. It is used and to relate the populational derivatives of ensemble-average functionals in both these representations, which represent reactivity criteria for diagnosing the charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. Their equivalence is demonstrated by using the in situ potential and hardness descriptors to predict the direction and optimum amount of CT. The virial theorem is generalized into thermodynamic quantities and used to extract the kinetic energy component from qualitative energy profiles in the bond-formation and (exo/endo)-ergic reactions. The role of electronic kinetic energy in such chemical processes is reexamined, the virial theorem implications for the Hammond postulate of reactivity theory are explored, and variations of the structural-information in chemical processes are addressed. The maximum thermodynamic information rule is formulated and “production” of the gradient- information in chemical reactions is addressed. The Hammond postulate is shown to be indexed by the geometric derivative of resultant gradient-information at transition-state complex.
An EPR study of paramagnetic centers formed by irradiation of polycrystalline L-α-anhydrous asparagine (L-Asn) was performed. The EPR spectra of gamma irradiated samples at room temperature, shown the presence of three types of paramagnetic centers. A possible mechanisms of formation for the three radical species is suggested, based also on literature data. The kinetics of the disappearance of radicals during thermal annealing indicated a complex mechanism.
A simple, controlled, robust and scalable three-stage manufacturing process of Afatinib Dimaleate was assessed and optimized leading to improved yield and quality. The synthetic process involves sequence of reactions as nitro-reduction, amidation and salification. The developed and optimized route was demonstrated on 300g scale with over all isolated yield of 84% for Afatinib free base. The developed process has the capability to control not only the process related impurities but also the degradation impurities. One new impurity was identified during the process development studies and characterized as acetamide impunity, chemically known as (S)-N-(4-((3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino)-7-((tetrahydrofuran-3-yl) oxy) quinazolin-6-yl) acetamide. Other impurities were identified as degradation impurities, Process impurity impurities and were labeled as 1-(4-((3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino)-7-(((S)-tetrahydrofuran-3-yl) oxy) quinazoline-6-yl)-5-Hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one (hydroxy impurity), Afatinib N-Oxide impurity and N4-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-[[(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furanyl] oxy]-4,6-quinazolinediamine (Intermediate-1).
With rapid developments of nano-engineering in the recent years, high-performance and multi-functional nano-materials, exhibiting new and enhanced physical and chemical properties, are introduced with innumerable conceivable applications. The recent advances in design, synthesis and characterization techniques of nano-materials have enabled the fabrication of modern nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS). Research breakthroughs in NEMS technology over the past decade have caused an increased interest in the analysis of structures at nano-scale, stimulated by the fact that control over these exclusive properties leads to development of concepts potentially resulting in new engineering applications......