The objective of this study is to contribute with empirical evidence to the understanding of the determinants of export upgrading measured through two alternative indicators (export complexity level and degree of export diversification) using a cross-country panel dataset over the 1999–2013 period. For this purpose, a panel cointegration framework and two homogenous subpanels have been considered based on the income level of the sample countries (upper-middle and high income groups, low and lower-middle income groups). Based on the Dynamic OLS (DOLS) and Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS) technique, the results indicate that export upgrading of countries is enhanced by GDP per capita , knowledge creation ( this variable is differentiated into internal knowledge( i.e humain capital and research & development) and external knowledge (i.e Foreign Direct Investment and imports) and Institutional quality. The effects of these determinants vary between low, lower-middle income, upper-middle and high income country.
Employees are viewed as the most valuable organizational assets especially in today's competitive environment. Accordingly, it is essential to retain skilled employees and provide a supportive environment to improve their performance especially in service companies as their employees have direct communication and interaction with customers. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of organizational politics and emotional intelligence on two fundamental employee outcomes: turnover intention and employee performance. In addition, the current study examined the moderating impact of emotional intelligence on the relationship between organizational politics and turnover intention, and on the relationship between organizational politics and employee performance. Further, the study examined the association between employee characteristics: gender, age and work experience, and their turnover intention and performance. This study employed a quantitative research method and used administered survey questionnaire to collect data from 400 employees working in four service industries in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor states, Malaysia: banking, telecommunication, insurance and tourism. Structural equation modelling using Smart-PLS was used to analyze collected data. The research findings revealed that organizational politics and emotional intelligence had a significant impact on turnover and employee performance. However, emotional intelligence had no significant moderating impact on the relationship between organizational politics and the two employee outcomes: turnover intention and employee performance. Moreover, employees' age was found to be significantly related to their turnover intention as employees as older employees were found to have a low turnover intention. The findings of this research provide a significant managerial implications which revolve around the need for managers to ensure a fair and effective organizational politics and retain employees with good level of emotional intelligence.
Due to the turbulent of business environment, complexity of managing human resource and volatility of customer needs, it is a formidable managerial task to design structures which will be suitable to meet such requirements and free to exercise course of action for managerial discretion. However, in most of the case the structure type that can be designed and implemented in many organizations are to the interest of stakeholders and owners. Research also shows that the latitudinal action of management staffs and autonomous decisions are a theme of discussion in managerial discretion. The researcher used a conceptual study of both a qualitative and quantitative approach coupled with case study for this study. Based on the study, the research findings show that organizations that have managed by owner-manager has less experienced managerial discretion, and thereby came to conclude that managers who are free to choose course of action have led to company success than those company which managed by owner-manager.
Coal-chemical industry is the foundation of producing industrial chemical products. The construction of a large-scale coal-chemical industry facility is a systematic project. Coal-chemical industry is along with high investment, high tech, and long construction period. Thus, the appropriate management and control is a necessity towards low cost and sustainability of the industry. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guideline on constructing a large-scale coal-chemical industry facility. The goal of the construction is to make the whole project be cost-effective, and quality and timeline guaranteed. Thus, the paper focused on three control aspects: cost control, progress control, and quality control. Each control aspect consisted of control components and followed by case studies. All case studies were derived from the construction of Kaiyang ammonia synthesis project. Although based on Kaiyang project, the paper generalized the control theorem in each control aspect. As a result, all methodology can be applied on any large-scale coal-chemical industry construction.