This paper investigates habitat-fisheries interaction between two important resources in the Chesapeake Bay: blue crabs and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). A habitat can be essential to a species (the species is driven to extinction without it), facultative (more habitat means more of the species, but species can exist at some level without any of the habitat) or irrelevant (more habitat is not associated with more of the species). An empirical bioeconomic model that allows for all three possible relationships was estimated and two alternative approaches were used to test whether SAV matters for the crab stock. Our results indicate that a model that incorrectly assumes that habitat is essential to a species can result in model misspecification and biased estimates of the impact of habitat on species productivity. Using a model that assumes an essential relationship, we find that SAV has a significant positive impact on blue crab productivity (p<0.001). However, in a more general model, we failed to reject the null hypothesis that SAV is irrelevant for crabs in the Bay (p>0.05).
This paper explored the role of social trust in public participating in environmental governance, by examining household decisions making on paying for the environment. The data was collected from World Values Survey which was conducted on over 1,900 residents in China. Individual’s trust profile was identified by applying the Latent Class Analysis (LCA) approach, respectively in interpersonal trust and institutional trust dimensions. The resulted posterior probabilities of trust classes obtained from LCA were used as predictors for household's payment decisions. The results show that in contemporary Chinese societies, "extended family trust” dominates in the interpersonal dimension, while "political trust" prevails in the institutional dimension. Social trust exerts positive impacts household’s willingness to pay for the environments, while the positive effects vary with trust patterns and payment patterns (donation pattern and tax pattern). Overall, interpersonal trust exerts weaker effect than institutional trust; the positive effect of trust is weaker in the tax pattern of paying than in the donation pattern of paying. The article concluded that generalized trust in institution is critical for improving civic participation in environmental governance.
The economic community is trying to find a sustainable monetary equivalent of international economic activity or get rid of it and move to a natural economy based on artificial intelligence. Solving this problem requires a new approach to the economic and social organization of society. The Muslim world is building an Islamic economy. Christendom can begin to shape the New Testament economy. The author proposes an approach to creating a social self-sufficient digital natural economy by a New Testament society. This approach will require the formation of a New Testament society that builds economic and social life, based on the New Testament doctrine. New Testament society creates a natural lifestyle, social, resource and digital aspects of a natural self-sufficient economy. The social self-sufficient digital natural economy is formed from the economy of realizing the necessary needs and the development economy. Society builds economic, social and spiritual life, relying on the New Testament doctrine. The Creator of the universe has provided the resources of the earth to all nations. Natural national resources are a national treasure. This provision makes it possible to realize social and economic self-sufficiency. The economy realizes the necessary needs of the population. Satisfaction of the necessary needs of the population is carried out equally, according to the New Testament doctrine. The formation of population demand is carried out through digital ensembles of intellectual agents. digital ensembles of intelligent agents also control the formation of demand, record the realization of necessary needs, track the satisfaction of demand. Digital solutions in a social self-sufficient subsistence economy are used not only in its organization, but also in industrial, agricultural, service and other areas of activity to realize the necessary needs.
Using the Burke, Hsiang, and Miguel (2015) framework, we examine the nonlinear response effect of economic growth to historic temperature and precipitation fluctuations. We confirm that aside from the significant effect of rising temperature on agricultural production, industrial production and investment endeavors also serve as other potential channels through which temperature significantly affects overall economic productivity. We find the overall economic productivity of developing Asia to be at least 10% lower by 2100 relative to business as usual. We also empirically analyze policy measures and factors that could help countries mitigate consumption volatility driven by climate change-related events. Consistent with several micro-level findings, financial inclusiveness helps households mitigate consumption volatility amid temperature change. Likewise, government plays a critical role in moderating the negative impact of rising temperature in both output and consumption.
The wind resource assessment for three locations in Rakiraki, Fiji are carried out. The wind resources at Rokavukavu and Navolau has been analyzed along with the nearby Tuvavatu site. The annual diurnal wind speed, wind shear and turbulence intensity were analyzed. Rokavukavu, Navolau and Tuvavatu site has an average wind speed of 5.91 m/s, 8.94 m/s and 8.13 m/s respectively at 55 m above ground level (a.g.l). The wind direction for all the three sites is predominantly South-East. The diurnal wind speed pattern and the wind shear pattern for all the three sites were consistently similar. The turbulence intensity at Rokavukavu, Navolau and Tuvavatu were found to be 14.9%, 17.1% and 11.7% at 55 m a.g.l. The Weibull parameters and the wind power density were obtained for all the three sites by using the moment fitting method. A high resolution wind resource map for the three sites were obtained using Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The WAsP analysis indicates good wind potential at Navolau and Tuvavatu site for power production. The annual energy production (AEP) with six Vergnet 275 kW wind turbines for Navolau and Tuvavatu site is estimated and an economic analysis is performed, which exhibited a payback period of 5 and 6 years respectively.
Climate-related natural disaster shocks are expected to rise as the earth is getting warmer, which will adversely affect growth globally. Empirically, the effects of typhoons and droughts have negative impacts on economic growth and would likely to persist up to 2 decades. Using the typhoon landfalls and damage in Asia, we analyze the wind–damage relationship and find damages to gross domestic product increase by 2.3% for an increase in maximum wind speed. The extreme projected temperature rise in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 will result in higher typhoon damage by more than 50% in 2100. Vulnerable developing Asian economies could expect dampened growth with significant impacts on agriculture and tourism, a concern that may undermine years of development and worsen inequality. To cope with increasing disaster risks, both short-term adaptation strategies like relocation, government transfers, and other social safety nets, as well as long-term strategies are needed.