Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

Main Article Content

Todd Michael Tedrow corresponding author
Jennifer Anderson

Abstract

This cross-sectional, exploratory, quantitative research project investigated differences in students’ learning styles across multiple academic disciplines. The Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scales (GRSLSS) was selected which presents six learning styles: independent, avoidant, collaborative, dependent, competitive, and participant. Surveys were administered to students (N = 448) registered in professional preparatory programs (n = 6) at a Midwest regional commuter-based campus. Results support the need for interprofessional education initiatives to be developed from a student-centered perspective where the attributes of learners are interwoven – explicitly and implicitly, into the learning experience.

Keywords
learning styles, interprofessional education

Article Details

Author Biography

Jennifer Anderson, School of Social Work, University of Wisconsin Whitewater, Whitewater, WI 53190, USA

Dr. Anderson came to the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater campus in 2015. She presently holds the rank of Assistant Professor. Dr. Anderson earned her BA degree from Saint Joseph’s College in Psychology and Spanish, her MSW from Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and her PhD from Indiana University School of Social Work. Her area of research is in interprofessional education (IPE) program design with an emphasis in community-university partnerships. She has received multiple awards and recognitions for her service and collaborative efforts. Most recently, Dr. Anderson received the Chancellor’s Award for her support of individuals with disabilities on campus. Jennifer is a licensed clinical social worker with nearly 20 years of experience in a wide variety of settings. She teaches practice, theory, and field courses for UWW social work program. She serves on the Editorial Board of the Journal for Social Services Research, is a council member for the Council for Social Work Education (CSWE), and serves as a track member for CSWE in the area of Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice.

How to Cite
Tedrow, T., & Anderson, J. (2020). Student learning styles: Implications for interprofessional education program design. Advances in Educational Research and Evaluation, 2(1), 101-112. https://doi.org/10.25082/AERE.2021.01.002

References

  1. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Educating health professionals in teams: Current reality, barriers, and related actions. Institute of Medicine Report, 2001, 1: 1-10. https://healthsciedu.umn.edu/sites/healthsciedu.umn.edu/files/2019-10/educating-health-professionals-teams_1_0.pdf
  2. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurse. The National Academies Press: Washington, D.C. 2004. https://doi.org/10.17226/10851
  3. Barnsteiner J, Disch J, Hall L, et al. Promoting interprofessional education. Nursing Outlook, 2007, 55: 144-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2007.03.003
  4. Ten Cate O and Schelle F. Competency-based postgraduate training: Can we bridge the gap between theory and practice? Academic Medicine, 2007, 82: 542-547. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31805559c7
  5. Reeves S, Zwarenstein M, Goldman J, et al. Interprofessional education: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database System Review (1): CD002213. 2008.
  6. Zwarenstein M, Goldman J and Reeves S. Interprofessional collaboration: Effects of practice-based interventions on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 2009, 3(3): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000072.pub2
  7. Steinbrook R. Health care and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. New England Journal of Medicine, 2009, 360: 1057-1060. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp0900665
  8. Kaiser Family Foundation. Focus on health reform. Summary of new health reform law. No. Publication # 8061. Menlo Park, CA: Author. 2010. http://www.kff.org/healthreform/upload/8061.pdf
  9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange. (April 14, 2008, updated April 28, 2010). Medical team training using crew resource management principles enhances provider communication and stimulates improvements in patient care. Rockville, MD. 2008. https://www.ahrq.gov
  10. Baker DP, Gustafson S, Beaubien JM, et al. Medical team training programs in health care. pp. 253-267 in Advances in Patient Safety: From Research to Implementation: Programs, tools, and products, 2005, 4: 1-4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK20580
  11. King HB, Battles J, Baker DP, et al. TeamSTEPPS: Team strategies and tools to enhance performance and patient safety. Advances in Patient Safety: New Directions and Alternative Approaches, 2008, 3: 5-20. https://www.seguridaddelpaciente.es/resources/contenidos /castellano/Volumen 3 Performance and Tools.pdf
  12. Barr H. Competent to collaborate: Towards a competencybased model for interprofessional education. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 1998, 12: 181-187. https://doi.org/10.3109/13561829809014104
  13. Blue A, Brandt B andSchmitt M. American Interprofessional Health Collaborative: Historical roots and organizational beginnings. Journal of Allied Health, 2010, 39(3): 204-209.
  14. Walsh CL, Gordon F, Marshall M, et al. Interprofessional capability: A developing framework for interprofessional education. Nurse Education in Practice, 2005, 5: 230-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2004.12.004
  15. World Health Organization. Framework for action on interprofessional education & collaborative practice. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2010. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2010/WHO_HRN_HPN_10.3_eng.pdf
  16. Pollard K. Student engagement in interprofessional working in practice placement settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2009, 18: 2846-2856. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02608.x
  17. Twill S, Elpers K and Lay K. Achieving HBSE competencies through service- learning. Advances in Social Work, 2011, 12(1): 49-62. https://doi.org/10.18060/1174
  18. Wilson S, Rozensky R and Weiss J. The Advisory Committee on Interdisciplinary Community-based linkages and the federal role in advocating for interprofessional education. Journal of Allied Health, 2010, 39(3): 210-215. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21174042/
  19. Heimberg RG, Mueller GP, Holt CS, et al. Assessment of anxiety in social interaction and being observed by others: The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale. Behavior Therapy, 1992, 23(1): 53–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80308-9
  20. Novak S, Shah S, Wilson J, et al. Pharmacy student’s learning styles before and after a problem-based learning experience. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2006, 70(4): 74-80. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj700474
  21. Litvack A, Bogo M and Mishna F. Emotional reactions of students in field education: An exploratory study. Journal of Social Work Education, 2010, 48(2): 227-243. https://doi.org/10.5175/JSWE.2010.200900007
  22. Choi G, Ligon J and Ward J. Computer anxiety and social workers: Differences by access, use, and training. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 2002, 19(1): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1300/J017v19n01_01
  23. Eng W, Coles ME, Heimberg RG, et al. Domains of life satisfaction in social anxiety disorder: relation to symptoms and response to cognitive-behavioral therapy. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2005, 19(2): 143-156. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2004.01.007
  24. Haslam C, Atkinson S, Brown SS, et al. Anxiety and depression in the workplace: Effects on the individual and organization (a focus group investigation). Journal of Affective Disorders, 2005, 88(2): 209-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2005.07.009
  25. Schneier FR. Social anxiety disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 2006, 355: 1029-1036. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp060145
  26. Halbesleben J. Sources of social support and burnout: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2006, 91(5): 1134-1145. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1134
  27. Ferris GR, Witt LA and Hochwarter WA. Interaction of social skill and general mental ability on job performance and salary. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2001, 86(6): 1075- 1082. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.6.1075
  28. MacKenzie D and Merritt BK. Making space: Integrating meaningful interprofessional experiences into an existing curriculum. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 2013, 27(3): 274- 276. https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2012.751900
  29. Accreditation of Interprofessional Health Education [AIPHE]. AIPHE interprofessional health education accreditation standards guide. 2010. http://www.cihc.ca/files/resources/public/English/AIPHE%20Interprofessional%20Health%20Education%20Accredi tation%20Standards%20Guide EN.pdf
  30. Guilding C, Hardisty J, Randles E, et al. Making it work: The feasibility and logistics of delivering large-scale interprofessional education to undergraduate healthcare students in a conference format. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 2018, 32(5): 653-655. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2018.1496074
  31. Zirn L, Kormer M, Luzay L, et al. Design and evaluation of an IPE module at the beginning of professional traning in medicine, nursing and physiotherapy. GMS Journal for Medical Education, 2016, 33(2): 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3205/zma001023
  32. Aurora P, Dumenco L, Mello MJ, et al. An interprofessional model for teaching medical students to provide screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment for substance misuse. Rhode Island Medical Journal, 2019, 102(3): 18- 21.
  33. Gottenborg E, Limes J, Olson A, et al. Learning together: Integration of advanced practice providers into a general medicine ward team. JGIM: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2019, 34(5): 769-772. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-019-04880-4
  34. Graybeal C, Long, R, Scalise-Smith D, et al. The art and science of interprofessional education. Journal of Allied Health, 2011, 39(supp1): 232-237. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21174045/
  35. Bridges D, Davidson RA, Soule Odegard P, et al. Interprofessional collaboration: three best practice models of interprofessional education. Medical Education Online, 2011, 16(1): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3402/meo.v16i0.6035
  36. Owen J, Brashers T, Peterso, C, et al. Collaborative care best practice models: A new educational paradigm for developing interprofessional educational (IPE) experiences. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 2012, 26(2): 153-155. https://doi.org/10.3109/1356182.2011.645958
  37. Moriel D and Quinlan P. Roles and responsibilities: Asking nurses and physicians what they know, do not know and want to know about each other’s profession. Journal of Research in Interprofessional Practice & Education, 2017, 7(1): 1-18. https://doi.org/10/22230/jripe.2017v7n1a253
  38. Cioffi J, Wilkes L, Cummings J, et al. Multidisciplinary teams for caring for clients with chronic conditions: Experiences of community nurses and allied health professionals. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 2010, 36(1-2): 61-70. https://doi.org/10.5172/conu.2010.36.1-2.061
  39. Cup E, Pieterse A, Hendricks H, et al. Implementation of multidisciplinary advice to allied health care professionals regarding the management of their patients with neuromuscular diseases. Disability & Rehabilitation, 2011, 33(9): 787-795. https://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2010.511414
  40. Sibbald S, Wathen N, Kothari A, et al. Knowledge flow and exchange in interdisciplinary primary health care teams (PHCTs): An exploratory study. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 2013, 101(2): 128-137. https://doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.101.2.008
  41. Way D, Jones L and Baskerville NB. Improving the Effectiveness of Primary Health Care through Nurse Practitioner/ family Physician Structured Collaborative Practice: Preliminary Final Report (pp. 1-158). Ottawa, Canada: University of Ottawa, 2001.
  42. D’Amour D and Oandasan I. Interprofessionality as the field of interprofessional practice and interprofessional education: An emerging concept. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 2005, 19(1): 8-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820500081604
  43. Poulton B. Teamwork and team development in health care social care. In Watkins D, Edwards J and Gastrell P. Community Health Nursing Frameworks for Practice (2nd). Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall. 2003
  44. Payler J, Meyer E and Humphris D. Pedagogy for interprofessional education: What do we know and how can we evaluate it? Learning in Health and Social Care, 2008, 7(2): 64- 78. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-6861.2008.00175.x
  45. Sargeant J. Theories to aid understanding and implementation of interprofessional education. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 2009, 29: 178-184. https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.20033
  46. Brandt BL, Farmer JA and Buckmaster A. Cognitive apprenticeship approaches to helping adults learn. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 1993, 59: 69-78. https://doi.org/10.1002/ace.36719935909
  47. Cooke NJ, Dorman JC and Rowe LJ. An ecological perspective on team cognition. In Salas E, Goodwin EF and Burke S (Eds.). Team effectiveness in complex organizations. New York: Psychology Press, 2009. https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a525964.pdf
  48. Sahoo PK and Chandra S. A study of learning styles of B.Ed. trainees of Indira Gandhi National Open University. Journal of Educational Studies, Trends, & Practices, 2013, 3(1): 33- 45. http://www.mierjs.in/ojs/index.php/mjestp/article/view/44
  49. Moallem M. Accommodating individual differences in the design of online learning environments: A comparative study. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 2007, 40(2): 217-245. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2007.10782506
  50. Logan K and Thomas P. Learning styles in distance education students learning to program. In Proceedings of 14th Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group, Brunel University, 2002, 29-44. http://www.ppig.org/papers/14th-logan.pdf
  51. Sadler-Smith E, Allinson CW and Hayes J. Learning preferences and cognitive style: Some implications for continuing professional development. Management Learning, 2000, 31(2): 239-256. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350507600312006
  52. Kumar P, Kumar A and Smart K. Assessing the impact of instructional methods and information technology on student learning styles. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 2004, 1(2): 533-544. https://doi.org/10.28945/2803
  53. Park J, Hawkins W, Hawkins M, et al. Attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration among students in health care professions. Advances in Social Work, 2013, 14(2): 556- 572.
  54. Barr H, Hammick M, Koppel I, et al. Evaluating interprofessional education: Two systematic reviews for health and social care. British Educational Research Journal, 2000, 25(4): 533-544. https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192990250408
  55. Barr H, Koppel I, Reeves S, et al. Effective interprofessional education: argument, assumption and evidence (promoting partnership for health). New York: John Wiley & Sons. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-6861.2006.00127.x
  56. Hammick M, Freeth D, Koppel I, et al. A best evidence systematic review of interprofessional education: BEME Guide no. 9. Medical Teacher, 2007, 29(8): 735-751. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590701682576
  57. Reeves S, Goldman J, Burton A, et al. Synthesis of systematic review evidence of interprofessional education. Journal of Allied Health, 2010, 39(3): 198-203. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21174040
  58. Vaughn L and Baker R. Teaching in the medical setting: Balancing teaching styles, learning styles and teaching methods. Medical Teacher, 2001, 23(6): 610-612. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590120091000
  59. Grasha T. Teaching with style: A practical guide to enhancing learning by understanding learning style and teaching styles. New York: Alliance. 1996.
  60. Smith R and Anderson L. Interprofessional learning: Aspiration or achievement? Social Work Education, 2008, 7: 759-776. http://hdl.handle.net/2086/3019
  61. Creswell JW and Poth CN. Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. 2018.
  62. Miles M, Huberman AM and Saldana J. Qualitative Data Analysis. (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. 2020.
  63. Rubin A and Babbie E. Research methods for social work (7th edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. 2011.
  64. Ravitch SM and Carl NM. Qualitative Research: Bridging the Conceptual, Theoretical, and Methodological. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. 2021.
  65. Creswell JW and Creswell JD. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. (5th Ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. 2018.
  66. Salkind N and Frey B. Statistics for People Who Think They Hate Statistics. (7th ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. 2019.
  67. Reichmann SW and Grasha AF. A rational approach to developing and assessing construct validity of a student learning instrument. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 1974, 87(2), 213-223. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1974.9915693
  68. Teo T. Online and paper-based survey data: Are they equivalent? British Journal of Educational Technology, 2013, 44(6): E196-E198. https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=23398283800
  69. Shulman L. A shifting paradigm—medical to interactional model: A personal history. Advances in Social Work, 2014, 15(1): 207-229. https://doi.org/10.18060/16647
  70. Negi N, Bender K, Furman R, et al. Enhancing selfawareness: A practical strategy to train culturally responsive social work students. Advances in Social Work, 2010, 11(2): 223-234. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.18060/482
  71. Bahar M. The relationship between pupils’ learning styles and their performance in mini science projects. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 2009, 9(1): 31-49. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ837775.pdf
  72. Merriam SB and Caffarella RS. Learning in adulthood. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass. 1991.
  73. Bell L and Allain L. Exploring professional stereotypes and learning for interprofessional practice: An example from UK qualifying level social work education. SocialWork Education, 2011, 30(3): 266-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2010.483726
  74. Grasha T. Observations on relating teaching goals to student response styles and classroom methods. American Psychologist, 1972, 27: 144-147.
  75. Grasha T. The naturalistic approach to learning styles. College Teaching, 1990, 38(3): 106-113. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27558415
  76. Grasha T and Kirschenbaum DS. Adjustment and competence: Concepts and applications. St. Paul, MN:West. 1986.
  77. Hruska-Reichmann S and Grasha AF. The Grasha- Reichman student learning style scales: Research findings and applications. In J. Keefe (Ed.), Student learning styles and brain disorders. Reston, VA: NASSP. 1982.
  78. Campbell E. Implementing service learning into a graduate social work course: A step- by-step guide. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 2012, 32: 300-313. https://doi.org/10.1080/08841233.2012.688935
  79. Sims D. Achieving collaborative competence through interprofessional education. Lessons learned from joint training in learning disability nursing and social work. Social Work Education, 2011, 30(1): 98-112. https://doi.org/10.1080/02615471003748056