Open Access Peer-reviewed Review

Mechanical properties of nanoparticles in the drug delivery kinetics

Main Article Content

Kaivon Assani
Amy Neidhard-Doll
Tarun Goswami corresponding author


Nanoparticle formulation is a recently developed drug delivery technology with enhanced targeting potential. Nanoparticles encapsulate the drug of choice and delivers it to the target via a targeting molecules (ex. antigen) located on the nanoparticle surface. Nanoparticles can even be targeted to deeply penetrating tissue and can be modeled to deliver drugs through the blood brain barrier. These advancements are providing better disease targeting such as to cancer and Alzheimer’s. Various polymers can be manufactured into nanoparticles. The polymers examined in this paper are polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA). The purpose of this study is to analyze the mechanical properties of these polymers to establish drug delivery trends and model pharmacokinetics and biotransport. We found that, in general, as the melting point, elastic modulus and tensile strength increases, the degradation rate also increases. PLA composite material may be an ideal polymer for drug delivery due to its good control of degradation.

nanoparticles, polymers, PCL, PLA, PLGA, PGA, melting point, modulus, kinetics

Article Details

How to Cite
Assani, K., Neidhard-Doll, A., & Goswami, T. (2022). Mechanical properties of nanoparticles in the drug delivery kinetics. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Research, 4(1), 248-255.


  1. More RB, Haubold AD and Bokros JC. Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine. San Diego: Academic Press, 1996.
  2. Langer R. Bioavailability of macromolecular drugs and its control in controlled drug bioavailability. Bioavailab. Control Drug Delivery System Design, Vol. 3, 1985.
  3. Langer R. Biomaterials in Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering: One Laboratory’s Experience. Accounts of Chemical Research, 2000, 33(2): 94-101.
  4. Mohanraj VJ and Chen Y. Nanoparticles-a review. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2006, 5(1): 561-573.
  5. Pokropivny V. Ed., Introduction to nanomaterials and nanotechnology. Tartu: Tartu University Press, 2007.
  6. Petros RA and Desimone JM. Strategies in the design of nanoparticles for therapeutic applications. Nature reviews. Drug discovery, 2018, 9(8): 615-627.
  7. Hasan S. A review on nanoparticles: Their synthesis and types. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 2015, 4: 1-3.
  8. Sharma D, Kanchi S and Bisetty K. Biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles: A review. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2015, 12(8): 3576-3600.
  9. Park W and Na K. Advances in the synthesis and application of nanoparticles for drug delivery. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Nanomedicine & Nanobiotechnology, 2015, 7(4): 494-508.
  10. Marin E, MI Brice˜no and Caballero-George C. Critical evaluation of biodegradable polymers used in nanodrugs. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2013, 8: 3071-3091.
  11. Schenk M and Mueller C. The mucosal immune system at the gastrointestinal barrier. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 2008, 22(3): 391-409.
  12. Ensign LM,Cone R and Hanes J. Oral Drug Delivery with Polymeric Nanoparticles: The Gastrointestinal Mucus Barriers. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 2012, 64(6): 557-570.
  13. Neus G, S´anchez Till´o E, Pujals Riat´os S, et al. Inorganic Nanoparticles and the Immune System: Detection, Selective Activation and Tolerance. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, 2012.
  14. Li SD and Huang L. Nanoparticles evading the reticuloendothelial system: Role of the supported bilayer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 2009, 1788(10): 2259-2266.
  15. Dongwoo K and Sang-Woo K. Multiple cues on the physiochemical, mesenchymal, and intracellular trafficking interactions with nanocarriers to maximize tumor target efficiency. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2015, 10:3 989-4008.
  16. Thangaraja A, Savitha V and Jegatheesan K. Preparation and Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol Coated Silica Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Application. International journal of nanotechnology and applications, 2014, 8(1): 31-38.
  17. Mishra P, Nayak B and Dey RK. PEGylation in anti-cancer therapy: An overview. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2016, 11(3): 337-348.
  18. Danhier F, Ansorena E, Silva JM, et al. PLGA-based nanoparticles: an overview of biomedical applications. Journal of Controlled Release, 2012, 161(2): 505-522.
  19. Mondal D, Griffith M and Venkatraman SS. Polycaprolactone-based biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery: Current scenario and challenges. International Journal of Polymeric Materials & Polymeric Biomaterials, 2016, 65(5): 255-265.
  20. Sha L, Chen Z, Zhou C, et al. Polylactic Acid Based Nanocomposites: Promising Safe and Biodegradable Materials in Biomedical Field. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2016, 2016: 1-11.
  21. Lasprilla A, Martinez G, Lunelli BH, et al. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Lactic Acid) for Use in Biomedical Field. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 2011, 24: 985.
  22. Kaihara S, Matsumura S, Mikos AG, et al. Synthesis of poly(L-lactide) and polyglycolide by ringopening polymerization. Nature Protocols, 2007, 2(11): 2767-2771.
  23. Chujo K, Kobayashi H, Suzuki J, et al. Physical and chemical characteristics polyglycolide. Die Makromolekulare Chemie, 1967, 100(1): 267-270.
  24. Makadia HK and Siegel SJ. Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) as Biodegradable Controlled Drug Delivery Carrier. Polymers, 2011, 3(3): 1377.
  25. Erbetta C. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(D,L-Lactide-co-Glycolide) Copolymer. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, 2012, 3(2): 208-225.