The conventional technologies used for identifying, investigating, and analyzing illegal drugs, explosives, and fibers in forensic science often involve destructive methods, preventing re-analysis of evidence. Conversely, a non-destructive approach is crucial for drug characterization, synthesis route development, and identification of counterfeit and adulterated pharmaceuticals. Raman spectroscopy, renowned for its rapid, non-destructive, and cost-effective nature, has emerged as the predominant technique in forensic and pharmaceutical applications. Its inelastic light scattering properties enable drug identification, minimize forensic toxicology and criminalistics, and ensure pharmaceutical product quality. This review explores the analysis of cocaine, RDX, HMX, PETN and TNT in forensic science, where Raman spectroscopy proves invaluable in detecting and quantifying drugs and explosives, deciphering synthesis routes, identifying manufacturing labs, and unveiling trafficking patterns and distribution networks. Additionally, it examines the analysis of acyclovir, ciprofloxacin, and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the pharmaceutical industry, offering insights for quality control, combating counterfeit and adulterated products, and facilitating real-time process monitoring. Despite limitations, recent advances in data analysis techniques position Raman spectroscopy as a versatile and promising tool for sample analysis, investigation, and determination in both forensic science and pharmaceuticals, illuminating the path towards enhanced analytical capabilities in these fields.