Shape memory alloys are a unique class of materials that are capable of large reversible deformations under external stimuli such as stress or temperature. The present study examines the phase transformations and mechanical responses of NiTi and NiTiHf shape memory alloys under the loading of a spherical indenter by using a finite element model. It is found that the indentation unloading curves exhibit distinct changes in slopes due to the reversible phase transformations in the SMAs. The normalized contact stiffness (F/S2) of the SMAs varies with the indentation load (depth) as opposed to being constant for conventional single-phase materials. The load-induced phase transformation that occurred under the spherical indenter was simulated numerically. It is observed that the phase transformation phenomenon in the SMA induced by an indentation load is distinctly different from that induced by a uniaxial load. A pointed indenter produces a localized deformation, resulting in a stress (load) gradient in the specimen. As a result, the transformation of phases in SMAs induced by an indenter can only be partially completed. The overall modulus of the SMAs varies continuously with the indentation load (depth) as the average volumetric fraction of the martensite phase varies. For NiTi (Ea > Em), the modulus decreases with the depth, while for NiTiHf (Ea < Em), the modulus increases with the depth. The predicted young modules during indentation modeling agree well with experimental results. Finally, the phase transformation of the SMAs under the indenter is not affected by the post-yield behavior of the materials.
The conventional technologies used for identifying, investigating, and analyzing illegal drugs, explosives, and fibers in forensic science often involve destructive methods, preventing re-analysis of evidence. Conversely, a non-destructive approach is crucial for drug characterization, synthesis route development, and identification of counterfeit and adulterated pharmaceuticals. Raman spectroscopy, renowned for its rapid, non-destructive, and cost-effective nature, has emerged as the predominant technique in forensic and pharmaceutical applications. Its inelastic light scattering properties enable drug identification, minimize forensic toxicology and criminalistics, and ensure pharmaceutical product quality. This review explores the analysis of cocaine, RDX, HMX, PETN and TNT in forensic science, where Raman spectroscopy proves invaluable in detecting and quantifying drugs and explosives, deciphering synthesis routes, identifying manufacturing labs, and unveiling trafficking patterns and distribution networks. Additionally, it examines the analysis of acyclovir, ciprofloxacin, and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the pharmaceutical industry, offering insights for quality control, combating counterfeit and adulterated products, and facilitating real-time process monitoring. Despite limitations, recent advances in data analysis techniques position Raman spectroscopy as a versatile and promising tool for sample analysis, investigation, and determination in both forensic science and pharmaceuticals, illuminating the path towards enhanced analytical capabilities in these fields.
Materials are one of the basic elements or needs for continuing human beings’ life living and they are used for structural and nonstructural, biomedical, thermal, or other applications. In many types of materials, Composite materials are used in different sectors. The increasing need for eco-friendly, low-density, and lightweight product production prompted the development of fiber-reinforced polymer composites for usage in a variety of home items and automobile parts. The automobile manufacturing sectors have recently attempted to manufacture lighter and lighter parts. Shortly, automobiles must be lighter to meet demands for lower fuel usage and fewer CO2 emissions. On the other side that textile waste is still simply thrown into a landfill in the environment resulting in and causing pollution. So, the objective of this review was to show the ability of these waste materials used as reinforcing material for composite fabrication products like car hoods, Car bumpers, and lightweight automotive parts. also, it tries to explain the roles of lightweight materials for automotive body parts and also the reduction of wastes in the textile industry by recycling and converting them into useable products, making the environment free of pollution. This waste reduction is a current world issue.
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have become the leading energy storage technology, powering a wide range of applications in today's electrified world. This comprehensive review paper delves into the current challenges and innovative solutions driving the supercharged future of lithium-ion batteries. It scrutinizes the limitations of energy density in existing batteries, exploring advanced electrode materials and designs that promise higher capacity. Safety concerns take center stage, with a focus on cutting-edge thermal management systems and materials. The imperative of sustainable sourcing is addressed, highlighting alternative materials and recycling strategies for a greener supply chain. Transformative breakthroughs, such as solid-state electrolytes and emerging battery chemistries, offer glimpses of the future. The paper also examines the applications and market perspectives of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles, portable electronics, and renewable energy storage. It concludes by emphasizing the transformative potential of lithium-ion batteries in accelerating the energy revolution and paving the way for a sustainable energy future.
Although lithium-ion batteries have gained widespread use in high-performance and mobile industries, concerns about their safety due to the low boiling point of their organic liquid electrolyte have posed challenges to their further development. In response, solid polymer electrolytes have emerged as a promising alternative, characterized by low flammability, flexibility, and high safety relative to liquid electrolytes. However, commercialization has been hindered by limitations in Li-ion conductivity and mechanical properties. Recent research efforts have focused on addressing these limitations to improve the performance and safety of polymer-based Li-ion batteries. This review discusses the utilization of polymer materials to enhance battery safety and overcome previous challenges, with a particular emphasis on the design of robust artificial interfaces to increase battery stability. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects for the future of polymer-based battery industries.