The study examined the factors that influence the domestic prices of petroleum using the price of premium motor spirit (PMS) in Nigeria from 1980 to 2020. The study employed Autoregressive Distributed Lag model for the data analysis. The scope of the data used from the analysis of the study ranges from 1980 to 2020. The study found out that there exist a positive relationship between petroleum pump price and inflation and the result is statistically significant at 5% level of significance. The study also discovered that both oil output and oil import are the prime factors affecting the prices of domestic energy in Nigeria. The study recommended that our refineries should be put in good shape so we can save the cost of having to export to other countries for refining as this contributed to the high cost of selling the product in Nigeria. The study also recommended diversification of the economy in favour of the real sectors as this will help provide more goods for exports thereby improving on the balance of payment.
Recently, many non-state money systems have appeared based on digital cryptocurrencies. The disadvantages of digital cryptocurrencies are the separation from real production, the inequality of participants, the lack of control by state bodies, and the security problem. Digital money becomes full-fledged only when it is connected with the real economy and financially secured. The author proposes the introduction of a material digital energy economic equivalent. Based on the digital energy of the economic equivalent, it is proposed to form a digital high-tech platform economy of healthy needs, like the economy of the future. Platform economy is an economic activity based on platforms, which are understood as online systems that provide comprehensive standard solutions for interaction between users, including commercial transactions and innovative solutions. It is proposed to measure the efficiency of the future economy by economic energy intensity. Energy intensity is represented by a certain amount of energy of economic equivalent, in accordance with the law of energy conservation. Reliance on a materially supported digital energy economic equivalent, as a new currency, makes a digital high-tech platform economy of healthy needs synergistic, efficient, sustainable, safe, ecological, open, controlled by society, without speculative operations, health supportive, accurately measured through digital energy intensity. Material digital energy intensity will avoid the speculative shortcomings of existing digital money systems. To this end, governments establish a procedure for regulating the energy economy with an economic equivalent, as an impact on public relations in order to streamline and stabilize them, in order to realize the necessary needs of society in accordance with the available resources. In an era of energy deficit, a transition to an economy with energy of economic equivalent will lead to the optimal use of energy. Market competition will help create less energy-intensive technologies and energy-efficient offerings to meet demand. An environmental economy based on energy of economic equivalent can acquire international status.
Although Bangladesh’s immense steps in preparing the disaster management policies following the values of good governance issue, the quantity to which these policies have productively been executing at the local level remnants mostly unknown. The objectives of this investigation were dual: firstly, to inspect the roles and efficiency of the local-level governance and disaster management organization, and lastly, to recognize the obstacles to the execution of national the policies and Disaster-Risk-Reduction guidelines at the local community level. The authors applied qualitative research and case Study approach, using techniques from the Participatory Rural Appraisal toolbox to collect data from local community members as well as government and NGO officials. From the finding of the study, it was revealed that interactive disaster governance, decentralization of disaster management, and compliance by local-level institutions with good governance principles and national policy guidelines can be extremely effective in reducing disaster-loss and damages. According to coastal community members, the local governments have generally failed to uphold good governance principles, and triangulated data confirm that the region at large suffers from rampant corruption, political favoritism, lack of transparency and accountability and minimal inclusion of local inhabitants in decision-making – all of which have severely impeded the successful implementation of national disaster-management policies. This study contributes to these research gaps, with identification of further research agenda in these areas. The paper deals with International Sendai Framework that called for enhancement of local level community resilience to disasters. Thus, it contributes to numerous policy and practice areas relating to good disaster governance. The study identified the specific manifestations of these failures in coastal communities in Bangladesh. These results underscore the vital need to address the wide gap between national DRR goals and the on-the-ground realities of policy implementation to successfully enhance the country’s resilience to climate change-induced disasters.
Displacement is the earlier concept of civilization but climate induced displacement is the contemporary issue as climate victim of modern and industrialized world. The prime aim of the study was to investigate the rural to urban migration of disaster induced displacement in coastal area of Bangladesh addressing to risks and opportunities. The study mainly based on primary data and secondary data was used for validation. Primary data have been obtained through the quantitative along with qualitative sources. Qualitative data were attained through Participant Observation, Key Informant Interview (KII) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) methods. Quantitative data have been acquired through the field study consisting of a questionnaire survey. Data were interpreted by the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS-20). The study reveals that after displacement nearly 89% displaced people migrated from rural (Kutubdia Island) to Cox’s Bazar urban area. Consequently, meantime their monthly income, occupational status, housing and sanitation condition, source of drinking water and health care facilities were changed positively but in most cases they are dissatisfied. Because they lost their traditional and indigenous occupations system (after migration nearly 30% dissatisfied about their occupation but before migration it was 16%) and their housing pattern and conditions become worsen. Availability of water and sanitation facility and healthcare seeking behavior changed positively in the urban area. However, in urban area they faced multi-dimensional problems such as harassment by mussel man (14%) and local elite group influence (32%), loss of identity and dignity, freedom of speech, social stratification, loss of socio-cultural harmony and fear of eviction as well as involvement of different types of illegal activities, such as drug addiction and smuggling and so on. Finally, the study revealed that there is risk and opportunity for climate displaced people in urban migration. However, planned migration of disaster induced displaced people can reduce the risk factors in the urban setting.
Energy demand varies depending on the location chosen for construction. The main objective of this research is to analyze the bioclimatic potential of different climatic zones in different regions of Madagascar. For this, this research assesses and compares the indoor air temperature, the energy requirement, the carbon emission and the relative humidity in a traditional building commonly found in cities in sub-Saharan Africa, which was designed to be placed in four cities unevenly distributed in four climatic zones of Madagascar. In order to achieve this goal, hourly meteorological data for the past thirty years has been analyzed for two seasons (dry season and rainy season). At the same time, the adaptive comfort model defined by ASHRAE 55 served as a reference for evaluating the different potentials of passive design. The results showed that by 2030 the need for energy is expected to increase globally in these different cities studied. Like other countries around the world, it is recommended that countries in Sub-Saharan Africa conduct more of this kind of energy. Study in order to establish a construction standard specific to this region of the world.
Energy resources are key to the economy. Firstly, any processes in the production sector are associated with energy consumption. Energy costs permeate all areas of material production, are the most important and integral part of both core and working capital. Secondly, energy resources are currently scarce and define the limits of economic development. At present, the issues of improving energy efficiency from the sectors of the economy are given great attention. For the implementation of programs to increase economic efficiency, the development of theoretical provisions and methodological foundations of energy economic assessment of production is of great importance, There is a variation in the energy equivalents per waste of production resources offered by standards for different types of energy. Considering energy issues in economic systems, economic energy is not found in the relevant classifications, but experts consider the allocation of such a category in the theory of economic development to be timely, and this category fully meets all economic indicators. To do this, it is necessary to determine the energy equivalent for each energy source. The article assumes the calculation of energy equivalents expressed by rational numbers. The use of energy equivalents allows you to move to a single measure of energy for all types. A single measure of energy allows you to move to a single international currency for financial and economic international cooperation.