Disadvantage, educational social mobility and barriers to student engagement: An exploration of the Psychosocial and Academic Trust Alienation theory across educational practice
Main Article Content
This article explores the original concept of the Psychosocial and Academic Trust Alienation (PATA) theory across the education sector, specifically focusing on barriers to student engagement for disadvantaged students and educational social mobility. It begins with an examination of the terms `disadvantage and educational social mobility' followed by a discussion of the context of the educational experiences of disadvantaged students aged 0-19 years old in the UK. An exploration and definition of the PATA theory and the subsequent links to barriers to student engagement in educational practice is then presented. Subsequently, age-appropriate case vignettes demonstrating how the PATA theory can be identified or experienced in practice are presented. Thereafter, practical teaching and learning strategies based on the concepts of the PATA theory for educators, leadership teams and Governments can be found. These strategies aim to stimulate educational pedagogy when supporting the most disadvantaged students in education. Therefore, the contribution of this article to the field of educational psychology is firstly, the acknowledgement of the presence of the PATA theory across educational age ranges, secondly it provides insights into the educational psychological barriers to engagement for the disadvantaged student demographic, and thirdly it proposes practical strategies for supporting disadvantaged student progression thus contributing to educational social mobility.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Avery, J. C., Morris, H., Galvin, E., Misso, M., Savaglio, M., & Skouteris, H. (2021). Systematic review of school-wide trauma-informed approaches. Journal of child & adolescent trauma, 14, 381-397. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40653-020-00321-1
- Baier, A., C. (1991). Trust: The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Princeton: Princeton University.
- Baker, W., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E. C., & Taggart, B. (2014). Aspirations, education and inequality in England: insights from the Effective Provision of Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education Project. Oxford review of education, 40(5), 525-542. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2014.953921
- Bercow, J. Rt. Hon. (2018) Bercow: Ten Years On: An Independent Review of provision for children and young people with speech, language and communication needs in England. http://www.bercow10yearson.com
- Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Alienation and the four worlds of childhood. The Phi Delta Kappan, 67(6), 430-436. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20387679
- Çağlar, Ç. (2012). Development of the student alienation scale (SAS). Egitim ve Bilim-Education and Science, 37(166), 195-205.
- Çağlar, Ç. (2013). The relationship between the perceptions of the fairness of the learning environment and the level of alienation. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 50, 185-206.
- Çağlar, Ç. (2013a). The Relationship between the Levels of Alienation of the Education Faculty Students and Their Attitudes towards the Teaching profession. Education and Science, 2013, 13(3), 1507-1513.
- Department for Education. (2015). Policy Paper: 2010 to 2015 Government Policy: Education of Disadvantaged Children. https://www.gov.uk
- Department for Education. (2015a). 2010 to 2015 Government Policy: Childcare and Early Education - Appendix 6 Early Years Pupil Premium. H M Treasury. https://www.gov.uk
- Department for Education. (2021a). Academic Year 2019/20 Permanent Exclusions and Suspensions in England. https://explore-education-statistics.service.gov.uk
- Department for Education. (2021b). Development Matters Non-statutory curriculum guidance for the early years foundation stage. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk
- Department for Education. (2021c). Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage: Setting the standards for learning, development and care for children from birth to five. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk
- Department for Education. (2023). Guidance Pupil Premium Funding (Updated 30 March 2023). https://www.gov.uk
- Earl, S. (2017). Student Disengagement may be down to behaviour management techniques, says academic. TES. https://www.tes.com
- Earl, S. R., Taylor, I. M., Meijen, C., & Passfield, L. (2017). Autonomy and competence frustration in young adolescent classrooms: Different associations with active and passive disengagement. Learning and Instruction, 49, 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.12.001
- Education Endowment Fund. (2021). Helpful Evidence Sources for school leaders developing their pupil premium strategy. https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk
- Eyles, A., Major, L. E., & Machin, S. (2022). Social Mobility-Past, Present and Future: The State of Play in Social Mobility, on the 25th Anniversary of the Sutton Trust. Sutton Trust.
- García-Moya, I., Moreno, C., & Brooks, F. M. (2019). The `balancing acts' of building positive relationships with students: Secondary school teachers' perspectives in England and Spain. Teaching and Teacher Education, 86, 102883. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2019.102883
- Gasgoigne, M., & Gross, J. (2017). Talking about a generation: Current policy, evidence and practice for speech, language and communication. Communication Trust.
- Hascher, T., & Hadjar, A. (2018). School alienation: Theoretical approaches and educational research. Educational Research, 60, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2018.1443021
- Hascher, T., and Hagenauer, G. (2010). Alienation from school. International Journal of Educational Research, 49, 220-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2011.03.002
- Henry, K. L., Knight, K. E., & Thornberry, T. P. (2012). School disengagement as a predictor of dropout, delinquency, and problem substance use during adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of youth and adolescence, 41(2), 156e166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9665-3
- HM Government. (2021). Academic Year 2020/21: Schools, pupils and their characteristics. Gov.uk. https://explore-education-statistics.service.gov.uk/find-statistics/school-pupils-and-their-characteristics
- HM Government. (2021a). Study of early education and development (SEED): Findings from the Coronovirus (COVID-19) follow-up. Education Policy Institute. Department of Education. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk
- HM Government. (2021b). News Story: Birbalsingh to be appointed as chair of Social Mobility Commission. https://www.gov.uk
- HM Government. (2023). Guidance Pupil Premium Funding (Updated 30 March 2023). Department for Education. https://www.gov.uk
- House of Commons Library. (2022). The Pupil Premium (England) Research Briefing. https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk
- Jones, C. S. (2021). An investigation into barriers to student engagement in Higher Education: Evidence supporting `the psychosocial and academic trust alienation theory'. Advances in Educational Research and Evaluation, 2(2), 153-165. https://doi.org/10.25082/AERE.2021.02.002
- Jones, C. S. (2022). Education and the social mobility conundrum: An examination of the `psychosocial and academic trust alienation theory' in the context of disadvantaged students in the UK secondary education sector. Children & Society, 38, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/chso.12677
- Jones, C. S., & Nangah, Z. (2020). Higher education students: barriers to engagement; psychological alienation theory, trauma and trust: a systematic review. Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education, 25(2), 62-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603108.2020.1792572
- Lamrhari, D., Maitland, H., Morris, C., & Petty, J. (2021) Youth Voice on School Exclusions. The Children's Society. https://www.childrenssociety.org.uk
- Lee, J. C. K., Wan, Z. H., Hui, S. K. F., & Ko, P. Y. (2019). More student trust, more self-regulation strategy? Exploring the effects of self-regulatory climate on self-regulated learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 112(4), 463-472. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2018.1553840
- Mann, S. J. (2001). Alternative Perspectives on the Student Experience: Alienation and Engagement. Studies in Higher Education, 26(1), 7-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070020030689
- Marcin, K., Morinaj, J., & Hascher, T. (2019). The Relationship between Alienation from Learning and Student Needs in Swiss Primary and Secondary Schools. Hogrefe Veröffentlicht unter der Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 34(1), 35-49. https://doi.org/10.1024/1010-0652/a000249
- Marmot, M., Allen, J., Boyce, T., Goldblatt, P., & Morrison, J. (2020). Health Equity in England: The Marmot Review 10 years on. Institute of Health Equity.
- Maslen, J. (2019). Cracking the code: The social mobility commission and education policy discourse. Journal of Education Policy, 34(5), 599-612. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2018.1449891
- Ofsted. (2008). Good Practice in re-engaging students in secondary schools. Ofsted: London. https://dera.ioe.ac.uk
- Parris, S. R., Dozier, M., Purvis, K. B., Whitney, C., Grisham, A., & Cross, D. R. (2015). Implementing trust-based relational intervention® in a charter school at a residential facility for at-risk youth. Contemporary School Psychology, 19, 157-164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40688-014-0033-7
- Power, P. (2022). Toward A System That Heals Exploring Empathy and its Application To Youth Justice and Children's Education, Health And Social Care Services. https://www.peerpower.org.uk
- Schaffer, R, H. (2000). Social Development. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
- Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission. (2014). Cracking the code: how schools can improve social mobility. London: Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk
- Stevens, M. (2018). School-based support for children with conduct disorders a qualitative longitudinal study of high needs families. British Educational Research Journal, 44(5), 781-801. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3467
- The Children's Society. (2023). Child Criminal Exploitation and County Lines. https://www.childrenssociety.org.uk
- The Equality Trust. (2023). Social Mobility and Education. https://equalitytrust.org.uk
- Thomas, M. S., Crosby, S., & Vanderhaar, J. (2019). Trauma-Informed Practices in Schools Across Two Decades: An Interdisciplinary Review of Research. Review of Research in Education, 43(1), 422-452. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X18821123
- United Nations. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Treaty Series, 1577, 3.
- Walker, J., & Crawford, K. (2010). Social Work and Human Development. Exeter: Learning Matters Limited.