The back-sheet shields the solar panel from UV rays, moisture, dust, and other environmental factors. With the enormous growth of the solar industry year after year, the demand for recycling is also increasing rapidly. In the present study, the back-sheet layer was extracted from a waste crystalline silicon PV module by thermally heating the module at 130˚C temperature. Various characterization techniques, including Raman, FTIR, SEM-EDAX, XRD, and TGA, were used to examine extracted back-sheet layer properties for its reuse. The Raman and FTIR spectra of extracted back-sheet are quite similar to those of reference PET back-sheet, indicating that no significant changes in composition occurred during the extraction process. The extracted back-sheet has a composition of carbon and oxygen as witnessed from EDAX spectroscopy. The extracted back sheet maintained its semicrystalline behavior as that of the reference back sheet, observed by XRD spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the thermal stability of extracted back-sheet is up to 252˚C in the air environment and up to 315˚C in the inert environment. Thermal degradation of extracted back-sheet is a two-step process in an air environment observed by differential thermogravimetry. The observed properties of extracted back-sheet are comparable to those of commercially available back-sheet, and the same may be reused in solar and polymer industries after appropriate processing.
Nanoparticles (NPs) of lead tetroxide (Pb3O4) with the spherical morphology were manufactured by the reaction of lead nitrate with sodium hydroxide, while the nanoparticles (NPs) of red iron oxide (Fe2O3) with similar morphology were fabricated by hydrothermal route in the presence of ferric chloride hexahydrate as the precursor. Evaluation of the chemical structure, the purity and the morphology of the manufactured Fe2O3 and Pb3O4 NPs was carried out by analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM). The outcomes of XRD recognized establishment of the desired oxides, wherever the SEM images clearly exhibited the morphology of the manufactured Pb3O4 and Fe2O3 as the spherical NPs with an average particle sizes of near to 40 and 46 nm, respectively. The catalytic effect of the metallic oxide NPs on the perfection of ammonium perchlorate (AP) thermal decomposing was established by testing their AP nano-composites via differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) together with thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Thermal behavior studies displayed that adding of 5% Fe2O3/Pb3O4 NPs (as the mixture) delivers a concerned catalytic effect during AP thermal decomposition. Additionally, thermal decomposition of AP could be amended by adding of 2% Pb3O4 NPs. Further comparison of the NPs catalytic effects was obtained by computing the values of activation energies (E) and thermodynamic parameters (i.e., ΔS#, ΔH# and ΔG#) for their thermal decomposition by non-isothermal approaches.
The adsorption capacity of three eggshell bioadsorbents was evaluated to remove contaminants from raw leachate. Optimal conditions for the removal of suspended solids, color, and organic compounds, as COD, were achieved by batch experiments with three levels of pH and absorbent concentrations. Kinetic studies and isotherms were developed to understand the behavior of COD removal by the bioadsorbents. The chemical and physical characterizations indicate the leachate used in the present study had characteristics between mature and intermediate leachates. The optimal adsorption conditions were pH 2.0 and 1.0 gram (0.5 g/L) of adsorbent. Adsorbent M showed the best adsorption capacities, removing 99.06% (1446 NTU) of turbidity, 86.25% (4140 UPt-Co) of color and 54.56% of COD (1530mg/L). The data obtained through the kinetic and isothermal tests were better fitted to the pseudo first order and Langmuir models, with an equilibrium adsorption capacity (Qe) of 139 mg of COD/g of adsorbent and a specific speed of 1.51 min-1.
Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, it has dramatically changed the global geopolitics, economics, and even society standard norms. The present world scenario is changed regarding business, traveling, and education. Rapid global dissemination and the high mortality rate of coronaviruses are the greatest challenges for drug developers. It will be moving forward toward the identification and treatment of emerging coronaviruses with the aid of nanotechnology. The COVID-19 pandemic raised the question of researchers’ capability to manage this dilemma in a short period. In the present review, we described how hallow material could be developed as a pro-drug that shows an excellent therapeutic effect. Hollow nanoparticles that exploration of antiviral or diagnostic agents against emerging coronaviruses. Hollow nanomaterials in vaccine development are essential because hollow nanocomposites are suitable for mimicking viral structures and antigen delivery. A biosensor that generates a signal from a transducer for comparing and analyzing biological conjugates such as cell receptors, antibodies, RNA, DNA, and nucleic acids. Different biosensors, such as graphene-based biosensors, nanoplasmonic sensor chips, nanomaterial biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, dual modality biosensors, and optical biosensors, have several advantages, characteristics, and a wide range of applications, most remarkably in medical treatment and are used for monitoring and diagnosis. This review focuses on modern experimental studies to identify intelligent and innovative bio/nanomaterials and matrices for developing targeted and controlled drug release systems, nanosensors and nanovaccines to combat pathogenic viruses.