The perspectives of the Sentinel-2 satellite imagery use for the ecological and economic assessment of land productivity spatial heterogeneity in territories with microrelief are analyzed. The duration of microdepressions (“potholes”) flooding with melting waters on the winter wheat fields and the resulting decrease in yield have been established. A quantitative determination of the index of heterogeneity of land productivity and its application for the adjustment of the value of agricultural land in the sale and purchase transactions are proposed.
Cameroon's current vision is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 32% by 2035. To this end, there is no doubt that renewable energies should play the leading role in achieving this goal. This paper applied the fishbone diagram as part of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis related to the deployment of renewable energies in Cameroon. The results showed that the share of renewable energy in the country's energy mix decreased from 98.9 to 76.11% in 2000 and 2015, respectively. This is due to the decline in hydroelectric generation, which has been caused by the growing share of fossil fuels, with solar, wind and biomass remaining underutilized. Meanwhile, the under-exploitation of Cameroon’s energy potential is mainly due to technological, financial, management, and the lack of skills barriers. However, the current rapid development of renewable energy technologies and financial support provided by the International Community under the Paris Agreement are opportunities that Cameroon can seize to engage significantly in R&DV, to promote its energy potential and reduce its dependence on foreign technologies. In this regard, this paper provided some pathways through which policymakers should pay more attention.
Knowledge of decoupling indicators and its determinants is useful for formulating targeted policy recommendations. To this end, the Log-Mean Divisia Index and Tapio models were applied in this paper to study the decoupling relationship among economic growth and GHG emissions in Cameroon over the period 1971-2014. The analyzes were conducted according to the three major periods that marked Cameroon after independence and the decoupling indicators were broken down into seven factors while considering the three main GHGs emitted in this country (i.e. CO2, CH4, and N2O). The results showed that weak decoupling, strong decoupling, and strong negative decoupling occurred in Cameroon during the periods 1971-1984 and 1994-2014 which represent the periods before and after the economic crisis, respectively. In addition to these three decoupling statuses, recessive decoupling only appeared during the economic crisis period (1984-1994). From 1971 to 1984 and between 1994 and 2014, carbon intensity, economic activity, population, and emission factor not only contributed to the increase of Cameroon’s GHG (particularly CO2) emissions but also prevented decoupling. Unlike the period 1984-1994, energy intensity contributed to reducing environmental pollution while promoting decoupling during the periods 1971-1984 and 1994-2014. Although all played an important role in decoupling, we found that after the introduction of natural gas into the country’s energy mix from 2007, the effect of renewable energies on the mitigation of Cameroon’s CO2 emissions remained higher than the substitution of fossil fuels. However, to develop a cleaner economy, Cameroon should maintain modest economic growth and continuously transform economic development pathways, while encouraging the use of renewable energy to further reduce energy intensity per unit of GDP per capita.
Interdisciplinary studies and cooperations are necessary for practical work as well as studies in geodesy. Responsibility is a function of power, impact and knowledge. The more strategically central one’s position is in terms of power, influence and knowledge, the higher one’s responsibility is. This is an idea which can be worked out in more detail by using interdisciplinary approaches and distributive models on different levels. Social traps, Prisoners’ Dilemma situations etc. as pertaining to land, soil, and environment as well as some examples from geodesics and the study of the usage of nature systems like lakes and flood plain areas are discussed regarding responsibility and distribution problems. “Naturalists’ Dilemmas” (or “Enjoyers’ Dilemmas”) are sketched and potentially solved by proposing a viable distribution strategy.
The mankind the activity moves to an ecological disaster. The technocratic approach to the organization of activity breaking environment ecology forces to defend the Nature accidents. The mankind crossed line of technological development when the Planet became vulnerable. Will help to rescue mankind from an ecological disaster, ecological thinking and behavior of people, and their ecological responsibility, the moral relation to the nature; harmonization of vital system by waste-free industrial cycles of the combined productions; eco-world formation. The problem of global ecological stabilization can be solved by implementation of social and economic interdisciplinary programs, such as, first, the ecological program “Clean Air, Clear Water, Pure Food, Net Energy, Pure Cities and Villages, Pure Nature”, secondly, the program of development ecological and health the preserving with the filled economy resources, thirdly, the “Development Health of the Preserving Medicine and Health System” program, fourthly, the program of the ecological focused interdisciplinary education, fifthly, the program of peaceful, humane environmental policy, sixthly, the program of civil education of harmonious life for a sustainable development, seventhly, the program of formation of fair democracy as way of life of society. Social and economic programs for stabilization of ecology need to be realized under the competent direction and control of the institutionalized infrastructure of scientific and educational society and on the basis of ecological thinking and behavior of all segments ofthe population. World community will have to undertake decisive measures to stabilize the environmental ecological processes in order to keep modern and future generations supplied with a harmony between the meeting of their reasonable needs, social and economic problems decision, with the life on the Earth being preserved.
Responsibility is a function of power, impact and knowledge. The more strategically central one's position is in terms of power, influence and knowledge, the higher his or her responsibility would be. This is an idea which can be worked out in more detail by using distributive models of graph theory and pre-distribution assignments of rights and duties according to different levels.