Vol 5 No 2 (2023)

Published: 2024-05-15

Abstract views: 136   PDF downloads: 46  

Page 424-429

Anticonvulsant activities of the methanol crude extract and fractions of the leaf Solanum americanum (S.a.) in pentylenetetrazole and 4-amino pyridine induced seizure in white albino rats

blankpage Rita Nwabiani, Adaora S. Ogbuagu, Isaac O. Okerulu

This research investigated the anticonvulsant effect of the crude extract and fractions of Solanum americanum’s (S.a.) leaves on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and 4- amino pyridinein albino rats to authenticate the use of the leaves in the treatment of epilepsy in South -Eastern Nigeria. The leaves of S.a were extracted with methanol and fractionated using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The parameters observed were onset of convulsions in minutes, duration of clonic phase in minutes, percentage protection from seizures and mortality. The anticonvulsant tests were carried out using 60 (sixty) white albino rats (weighing 80-136 g) of both sexes, varying concentrations of both methanol extracts and fractions (12.5, 25.0, 50.0, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) were administered to the rats after which convulsion were induced in the rats using 9.0 mg/kg of PTZ and 1.5 mg/kg 4-amino pyridine on different groups (35 and 25) of rats respectively. The results of the various groups were compared with the control group and significance was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The acute toxicity test was conducted at a dose of 3000 mg/kg. At a peak dose of 200 mg/kg methanol crude extract, hexane and methanol fraction in PTZ model protected the animals from seizure at 89.30%, 100%, 100% but gave 80%, 80% and 60% protection from mortality respectively. Hexane fraction (12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) protected the rats against mortality at 20%, 40%, 60%, 60% and 80% respectively, while no anticonvulsant activities were detected in ethyl acetate fraction. Differences among the means and standard deviation was statistically significant at P < 0.05.The acute toxicity test showed that the leaf of S.a. is non-toxic. The result obtained substantiated the use of the leaf of Solanum americanum ethnobotanically as anticonvulsant.

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Page 412-416

Determination of pesticide residues and heavy metals in Adhatoda Vasaka Linn.

blankpage Ritu Tiwari, Aishwarya Chauhan, Madhavi Patel, Komal Patel

Heavy metals and pesticide residue analysis plays an important role in the quality control of medicinal plants like Vasaka (Adhatoda vasica). Hence a study was conducted to determine heavy metals and pesticide residues in this medicinal herb, which is a highly useful commodity in the health system. The reliable, rapid and nontoxic sample preparation method like QuEChERS and analytical methods like GC-MS were proposed for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and Heavy metal detection was carried out by ICP-MS. In this study, the presence of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides like alachlor, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, etc was checked but not detected. Heavy metals like Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg) and Lead (Pb) are traced in samples about 2.3005 ppb, 0.799 ppb, 2.290 ppb and 10.204 ppb respectively in the present study.

Abstract views: 292   PDF downloads: 55  

Page 417-423

A big threat : Aflatoxin

blankpage Ritu Tiwari, Aanal Pandaya, Poornima Gulati, Aishwarya Chahuan

The past decade has witnessed a tremendous surge of interest in herbal medicines throughout the world. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are mainly produced by Aspargillus flavus and Aspargillus parasiticus and primarily contaminate food crops such as corn, groundnuts, and tree nuts as well as herbal medicinal plants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a lethal substance that intensely or at slower ingestion influences the strength of humans and animals. Aflatoxin study is vital for a safety perspective as they are extremely lethal and cancer-causing; to overcome the health effect of aflatoxins and for better assessment and standardization of herbal plant drugs.  The investigation includes worldwide regulations on aflatoxins with their acceptable ranges in commodities. With more controls for adequate dimensions of aflatoxins set up, present-day analytical techniques have turned out to be very modern, capable of accomplishing results with high accuracy and precision, appropriate for administrative research centers and post-reap sample testing in developed countries.