Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

Classification of the programming styles in scratch using the SOLO taxonomy

Main Article Content

Anastasios Ladias corresponding author
Theodoros Karvounidis
Dimitrios Ladias


The present study attempts to categorize the programming styles of sequential, parallel, and event-driven programming using as criterion, the level of adoption of the structured programming design techniques. These techniques are modularity, hierarchical design, shared code, and parametrization. Applying these techniques to the Scratch programming environment results in a two-dimensional table of representative code. In this table, one dimension is the types of the aforementioned programming styles and the other is the characteristics of structured programming. The calibration of each of the dimensions has been held with the help of the levels of the SOLO taxonomy. This table can develop criteria for evaluating the quality characteristics of codes produced by students in a broader grading system.

programming styles, programming genres, Scratch, SOLO taxonomy

Article Details

How to Cite
Ladias, A., Karvounidis, T., & Ladias, D. (2021). Classification of the programming styles in scratch using the SOLO taxonomy. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 1(2), 114-123.


  1. Biggs, J. B., & Collis, K. F. (1982). Evaluating the quality of learning. The SOLO taxonomy. NY: Academic Press.
  2. Doukakis, S. (2019). Exploring brain activity and transforming knowledge in visual and textual programming using neuroeducation approaches. AIMS neuroscience, 6(3), 175-190.
  3. Karvounidis, T., Argyriou, I., Ladias, An., & Douligeris, C. (2017). A Design and Evaluation Framework for Visual Programming Codes. EDUCON. Athens.
  4. Ladias, A. (1991). Pascal, a methodical approach. Kleidarithmos: Athens.
  5. Ladias A., Karvounidis T., & Ladias D. (2017). Partitioning the code in a Scratch visual programming environment. In Proceedings of the 11th Panhellenic Conference of Informatics Teachers (PEKAP), Chalkida, Greece.
  6. Ladias, D., Karvounidis T., & Ladias, A. (2020). Categorization in the SOLO taxonomy of programming styles in Scratch. Erkyna, 21, 89-100.
  7. Papert, S. A. (1991). Mindstorms: Children, computers, and powerful ideas. Basic books.
  8. Papadakis, S., & Kalogiannakis, M. (2019). Evaluating the effectiveness of a game-based learning approach in modifying students’ behavioural outcomes and competence, in an introductory programming course. A case study in Greece. International Journal of Teaching and Case Studies, 10(3), 235-250.
  9. Papadakis, S. (2020). Evaluating a Teaching Intervention for Teaching STEM and Programming Concepts Through the Creation of a Weather-Forecast App for Smart Mobile Devices. In Handbook of Research on Tools for Teaching Computational Thinking in P-12 Education (pp. 31-53). IGI Global.
  10. Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hern´andez, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., Millner, A., Rosenbaum, E., Silver, J., Silverman, B., & Kafai, Y., (2009). Scratch: Programming for All, Communications of the ACM, 52(11), 60-67.
  11. Vakali, A., Giannopoulos, I., Ioannidis, N., Koilias, Ch., Malamas, K., Manolopoulos, I., & Politis, P., (1999). Development of Applications in Programming Environment (C Lyceum) - Student Book. ITYE “DIOFANTOS.”
  12. Vidakis, N., Barianos, A. K., Trampas, A. M., Papadakis, S., Kalogiannakis, M., & Vassilakis, K. (2019). in-Game Raw Data Collection and Visualization in the Context of the “ThimelEdu” Educational Game. In International Conference on Computer Supported Education (pp. 629-646). Springer, Cham.