Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

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Stamatios Papadakis corresponding author


Online learning has proven its effectiveness recently, especially during the coronavirus outbreak [COVID-19] that forced the closure of educational institutions in most countries. Many see MOOCs as an alternative to the traditional education system due to the flexibility of learning time and the absence of economic and geographical constraints. People can access educational content for free through platforms that deliver online learning content. However, MOOCs have long-standing challenges that need to be addressed. These include high dropout rates and reduced user participation in learning activities such as forums and comments. Furthermore, international research has identified a need for more relevant knowledge, despite the importance experts ascribe to MOOCs for delivering educational content. To this end, this chapter examines the establishment of MOOCs in terms of their pedagogical and technological dimensions, starting with a definition and a brief history of MOOCs. To this end, the characteristics of MOOCs will be reviewed. The practical issues that have emerged from more than ten years of experience in implementing MOOCs at the international level will also be considered.

MOOC, Massive Open Online Course, cMOOC, xMOOC

Article Details

How to Cite
Papadakis, S. (2023). MOOCs 2012-2022: An overview. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 3(1), 682-693.


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