Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

The use of Kahoot in preschool mathematics education

Main Article Content

Aikaterini Xezonaki corresponding author


During the preschool period children acquire basic mathematics skills during preschool, the foundation for their later formal mathematics education. One tool that could enhance students' mathematical skills at this age and which utilizes the elements of games in non-game settings. This study aimed to implement an intervention program to examine whether gamification affects the mathematical competencies of preschool-aged students. Thirty-one students aged 4 to 6 participated, of which 15 shaped the experimental group and 16 shaped the control group. During the intervention program, students in the experimental group were tutored through tablets and games designed in Kahoot! application and involved basic math exercises such as addition and subtraction, while the control group did the same exercises without tablets. The results of the student's performance in the experimental group showed that their performance in mathematics before and after the intervention differed significantly. Therefore, students' mathematical skills were improved through Kahoot-based learning games. It can be concluded that the application of Kahoot! Learning games can improve the mathematical learning outcomes of preschool students. Pedagogical and psychological research should be used more to improve the mathematical skills of preschoolers.

Information and Communications Technology (ICT), mobile learning, mathematics, Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), preschool education

Article Details

How to Cite
Xezonaki, A. (2023). The use of Kahoot in preschool mathematics education. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 3(1), 648-657.


  1. Alshammari, M. T. (2020). Evaluation of gamification in e-learning systems for elementary school students. TEM Journal, 9(2), 806.
  2. Argın, Y., & Dağlıoğlu, H. E. (2020). An investigation into mathematics-related pedagogical content knowledge of preschool educators based on institution type. Ilkogretim Online, 19(4).
  3. Barianos, A. K., Papadakis, A., & Vidakis, N. (2022). Content manager for serious games: Theoretical framework and digital platform. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 2(1), 251-262.
  4. Beck, A. L., Chitalia, S., & Rai, V. (2019). Not so gameful: A critical review of gamification in mobile energy applications. Energy Research & Social Science, 51, 32-39.
  5. Bitrián, P., Buil, I., & Catalán, S. (2021). Enhancing user engagement: The role of gamification in mobile apps. Journal of Business Research, 132, 170-185.
  6. Briffa, M., Jaftha, N., Loreto, G., Pinto, F. C. M., Chircop, T., & Hill, C. (2020). Improved students' performance within gamified learning environment: A meta-analysis study. International Journal of Education and Research, 8(1), 223-244.
  7. da Silva, J. C. M., & Maran, V. (2020). Gamification applications in mathematic Education: a systematic mapping. Ciência e Natura, 42, e90-e90.
  8. Dahal, N., Manandhar, N. K., Luitel, L., Luitel, B. C., Pant, B. P., & Shrestha, I. M. (2022). ICT tools for remote teaching and learning mathematics: A proposal for autonomy and engagements. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 2(1), 289-296.
  9. Dermeval, D., Albuquerque, J., Bittencourt, I. I., Isotani, S., Silva, A. P., & Vassileva, J. (2019). GaTO: An ontological model to apply gamification in intelligent tutoring systems. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, 2, 13.
  10. Despeisse, M. (2018). Teaching sustainability leadership in manufacturing: a reflection on the educational benefits of the board game Factory Heroes. Procedia CIRP, 69, 621-626.
  11. Dicheva, D., Dichev, C., Agre, G., & Angelova, G. (2015). Gamification in Education: A systematic mapping study. Journal of educational technology & society, 18(3), 75-88.
  12. Ding, L., Er, E., & Orey, M. (2018). An exploratory study of student engagement in gamified online discussions. Computers & Education, 120, 213-226.
  13. Drolia, M., Sifaki, E., Papadakis, S., & Kalogiannakis, M. (2020). An overview of mobile learning for refugee students: juxtaposing refugee needs with mobile applications' characteristics. Challenges, 11(2), 31.
  14. Egan, M., & Hengst, R. (2012). Software on Demand: An Early Childhood Numeracy Partnership.Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 12, 328-342.
  15. Fleer, M. (2020). Examining the psychological content of digital play through Hedegaard's model of child development. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 26, 100227.
  16. Furdu, I., Tomozei, C., & Kose, U. (2017). Pros and cons gamification and gaming in classroom. arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1708.09337.
  17. Guzmán Carballo, M. D. L. L. (2022). Implementation of gamification in a CLIL context in Preschool Education.
  18. Hanus, M. D., & Fox, J. (2015). Assessing the effects of gamification in the classroom: A longitudinal study on intrinsic motivation, social comparison, satisfaction, effort, and academic performance. Computers & Education, 80, 152-161.
  19. Hofacker, C. F., De Ruyter, K., Lurie, N. H., Manchanda, P., & Donaldson, J. (2016). Gamification and mobile marketing effectiveness. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 34(1), 25-36.
  20. Jadhav, P., Gaikwad, H., & Patil, K. S. (2022). Teaching and learning with technology: Effectiveness of ICT integration in schools. ASEAN Journal for Science Education, 1(1), 33-40.
  21. Kalogiannakis, M., & Papadakis, S. (2017). A proposal for teaching ScratchJr programming environment in preservice kindergarten teachers. In Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) (pp. 21-25).
  22. Kapp, K. M. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction: game-based methods and strategies for training and Education. John Wiley & Sons.
  23. Lamrani, R., Abdelwahed, E. H., Chraibi, S., Qassimi, S., & Hafidi, M. (2018). Gamification and serious games based learning for early childhood in rural areas. In International conference on model and data engineering (pp. 79-90). Springer, Cham.
  24. Landers, R. N., Bauer, K. N., Callan, R. C., & Armstrong, M. B. (2015). Psychological theory and the gamification of learning. In Gamification in Education and business (pp. 165-186). Springer, Cham.
  25. Layland, E. K., Stone, G. A., Mueller, J. T., & Hodge, C. J. (2018). Injustice in mobile leisure: A conceptual exploration of Pokémon Go. Leisure sciences, 40(4), 288-306.
  26. Lewis Presser, A. E., Young, J. M., Clements, L. J., Rosenfeld, D., Cerrone, M., Kook, J. F., & Sherwood, H. (2022). Exploring Preschool Data Collection and Analysis: A Pilot Study. Education Sciences, 12(2), 118.
  27. Lieberoth, A., Jensen, N. H., & Bredahl, T. (2018). Selective psychological effects of nudging, gamification and rational information in converting commuters from cars to buses: A controlled field experiment. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour.
  28. Linder, S. M., & Simpson, A. (2018). Towards an understanding of early childhood mathematics education: A systematic review of the literature focusing on practicing and prospective teachers. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 19(3), 274-296.
  29. Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2020). A comparison of flipped learning with gamification, traditional learning, and online independent study: the effects on students' mathematics achievement and cognitive engagement. Interactive Learning Environments, 28(4), 464-481.
  30. Maksum, A., Wahyuni, E. N., Aziz, R., Hadi, S., & Susanto, D. (2022). Parents' and children's paradoxical perceptions of online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 2(2), 321-332.
  31. Nicolaidou, I., Tozzi, F., & Antoniades, A. (2022). A gamified app on emotion recognition and anger management for preschool children. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 31, 100449.
  32. Okojie, M. C. (Ed.). (2020). Handbook of Research on Adult Learning in Higher Education. IGI Global.
  33. Oliveira, W., Hamari, J., Joaquim, S., Toda, A. M., Palomino, P. T., Vassileva, J., & Isotani, S. (2022). The effects of personalized gamification on students' flow experience, motivation, and enjoyment. Smart Learning Environments, 9(1), 1-26.
  34. Papadakis, S. (2022). Apps to Promote Computational Thinking and Coding Skills to Young Age Children: A Pedagogical Challenge for the 21st Century Learners. Educational Process: International Journal (EDUPIJ), 11(1), 7-13.
  35. Papadakis, S., Alexandraki, F., & Zaranis, N. (2022a). Greek Parents' App Choices and Young Children's Smart Mobile Usage at Home. In New Realities, Mobile Systems and Applications: Proceedings of the 14th IMCL Conference (pp. 39-50). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  36. Papadakis, S., Alexandraki, F., & Zaranis, N. (2022b). Mobile device use among preschool-aged children in Greece. Education and Information Technologies, 27(2), 2717-2750.
  37. Papadakis, S., Gözüm, A. İ. C., Kalogiannakis, M., & Kandır, A. (2022). A Comparison of Turkish and Greek Parental Mediation Strategies for Digital Games for Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic. In STEM, Robotics, Mobile Apps in Early Childhood and Primary Education: Technology to Promote Teaching and Learning (pp. 555-588). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.
  38. Papadakis, S., Vaiopoulou, J., Sifaki, E., Stamovlasis, D., Kalogiannakis, M., & Vassilakis, K. (2021). Factors That Hinder in-Service Teachers from Incorporating Educational Robotics into Their Daily or Future Teaching Practice. In CSEDU (2) (pp. 55-63).
  39. Parapanos, D., & Michopoulou, E. (2022). Innovative mobile technology in hotels and the use of gamification. Tourism Planning & Development, 1-26.
  40. Petousi, V., & Sifaki, E. (2020). Contextualizing harm in the framework of research misconduct. Findings from a discourse analysis of scientific publications, International Journal of Sustainable Development, 23(3/4), 149-174,
  41. Prince, J. D. (2013). Gamification. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 10(3), 162-169.
  42. Qing, S. (2022). Design and Application of Preschool Education System Based on Mobile Application. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2022.
  43. Raja, M., & Lakshmi Priya, G. G. (2022). Using virtual reality and augmented reality with ICT tools for enhancing quality in the changing academic environment in COVID-19 pandemic: An empirical study. In Technologies, Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Learning Post-COVID-19 (pp. 467-482). Springer, Cham.
  44. Rozhenko, O. D., Darzhaniya, A. D., Bondar, V. V., & Mirzoian, M. V. (2021). Gamification of Education as an addition to traditional educational technologies at the university. In CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2914, 457-464).
  45. Schacter, J., & Jo, B. (2016). Improving low-income preschoolers mathematics achievement with Math Shelf, a preschool tablet computer curriculum. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 223-229.
  46. Skaraki, E. (2021). Reinforcing preschoolers' phonemic awareness through the use of tablets. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 1(1), 28-36.
  47. Swacha, J. (2021). State of research on gamification in Education: A bibliometric survey. Education Sciences, 11(2), 69.
  48. Swacha, J., Queirós, R., Paiva, J. C., Leal, J. P., Kosta, S., & Montella, R. (2020). A roadmap to gamify programming education. In 1st International Computer Programming Education Conference, ICPEC 2020 (p. 26). Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing.
  49. Tenório, K., Chalco Challco, G., Dermeval, D., Lemos, B., Nascimento, P., Santos, R., & Pedro da Silva, A. (2020). Helping teachers assist their students in gamified adaptive educational systems: Towards a gamification analytics tool. In International conference on artificial intelligence in Education (pp. 312-317). Springer, Cham.
  50. Treiblmaier, H., & Putz, L. M. (2020). Gamification as a moderator for the impact of intrinsic motivation: Findings from a multigroup field experiment. Learning and Motivation, 71, 101655.
  51. Umboh, D., Tarusu, D., Marini, A., & Sumantri, M. S. (2021). Improvement of student mathematics learning outcomes through Kahoot learning games application at elementary school. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1869, No. 1, p. 012124). IOP Publishing.
  52. Vaiopoulou, J., Papadakis, S., Sifaki, E., Kalogiannakis, M., & Stamovlasis, D. (2022). Classification and evaluation of educational apps for early childhood: Security matters. Education and Information Technologies, 1-32.
  53. Vaiopoulou, J., Papadakis, S., Sifaki, E., Stamovlasis, D., & Kalogiannakis, M. (2021). Parents' perceptions of educational apps use for kindergarten children: Development and validation of a new instrument (PEAU-p) and exploration of parents' profiles. Behavioral Sciences, 11(6), 82.
  54. Xezonaki, A. (2022). Gamification in preschool science education. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 2(2), 308-320.
  55. Yazıcı Arıcı, E., Keskin, H. K., Papadakis, S., & Kalogiannakis, M. (2022). Evaluation of Children's Discourses Regarding Imaginary Companion: The Case of Türkiye. Sustainability, 14(24), 16608.
  56. Yin, S., Cai, X., Wang, Z., Zhang, Y., Luo, S., & Ma, J. (2022). Impact of gamification elements on user satisfaction in health and fitness applications: A comprehensive approach based on the Kano model. Computers in Human Behavior, 128, 107106.