Open Access


Research Article

Main Article Content

Fotis Lazarinis
Ioannis Boididis
Lefteris Kozanidis
Dimitris Kanellopoulos corresponding author


The current study presents an adaptable light game engine, which is used to produce interactive educational settings focused on cultural heritage. The tool is implemented using inexpensive and open source technologies. In this paper we first discuss the architecture of the application and we then present two games developed by using the proposed engine. The produced games are multi-user and support the collaboration and communication among learners and among learners and instructors. Learners earn marks, badges and certificates as they study the material and complete the quizzes. Various evaluation experiments have been realized to understand the suitability of the produced content in educational activities. The evaluation results of the authentic educational actions were quite positive and supportive by both students and teachers.

serious game, e-learning, cultural heritage

Article Details

How to Cite
Lazarinis, F., Boididis, I., Kozanidis, L., & Kanellopoulos, D. (2022). An adaptable multi-learner serious game for learning cultural heritage. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 2(1), 201-215.


  1. Andreoli, R., Corolla, A., Faggiano, A., Malandrino, D., Pirozzi, D., Ranaldi, M., Santangelo, G., & Scarano, V. (2017). A Framework to Design, Develop, and Evaluate Immersive and Collaborative Serious Games in Cultural Heritage. ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage, 11(1), 1-22.
  2. Anthes, G. (2012). HTML5 leads a web revolution. Communications of the ACM, 55(7), 16-17.
  3. Bampatzia S., Bourlakos I., Antoniou A., Vassilakis C., Lepouras G., & Wallace M. (2016). Serious Games: Valuable tools for cultural heritage. In: Bottino R., Jeuring J., Veltkamp R. (eds) Games and Learning Alliance. GALA 2016. Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 10056, 331-341.
  4. Breuer, J., & Bente, G. (2010). Why so serious? On the relation of serious games and learning. Journal for Computer Game Culture, 4, 7-24.
  5. Chiu, P. H. P., Ki, T., Fan, F., Im, S. W. T., Cheng, S. H., Chui, L. L., Li, L., & Liu, D. Y. W. (2016). A project-problem based learning approach for appreciating ancient cultural heritage through technologies: Realizing mystical buildings in Dunhuang Mural. In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Teaching, Assessment, and Learning for Engineering (TALE) Bangkok, 65-69.
  6. Chopra, A. (2012). Introduction to google sketchup. John Wiley & Sons.
  7. Coenen, T., Mostmans, L., & Naessens, K. (2013). MuseUs: Case study of a pervasive cultural heritage serious game. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage, 6(2), 1-19.
  8. Dimitropoulos, K., Tsalakanidou, F., Nikolopoulos, S., Kompatsiaris, I., Grammalidis, N., Manitsaris, S., Denby, B., Crevier-Buchman, L., Dupont, S., Charisis, V., Hadjileontiadis, L., Pozzi, F., Cotescu, M., C¸ iftc¸i, S., Katos, A., & Manitsaris, A. (2018). A multimodal approach for the safeguarding and transmission of intangible cultural heritage: The case of i-Treasures. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 33(6), 3-16.
  9. Djaouti, D., Alvarez, J., Rampnoux, O., Charvillat, V., & Jessel, J. P. (2009). Serious games & cultural heritage: a case study of prehistoric caves. In 2009 15th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, 221-226.
  10. Dörner, R., Göbel, S., Effelsberg, W., & Wiemeyer, J. (2016). Serious Games. Basel, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
  11. Freitas S. de & Liarokapis, F. (2011). Serious games: a new paradigm for education? Serious Games and Edutainment Applications, 9-23.
  12. Froschauer, J., Arends, M., Goldfarb, D., & Merkl, D. (2011). Towards an online multiplayer serious game providing a joyful experience in learning art history. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VSGAMES), 160-163.
  13. Georgiou, S., & Lazarinis, F. (2013). Digitization and preservation of city landmarks using limited and free Web services. International Conference on Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria, 176-182.
  14. Goumas, G., & Lazarinis, F. (2013). Preserving Cultural Heritage using Open Source Collection Management Tools. International Conference on Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria, 169-175.
  15. Grammatikopoulou, A., Laraba, S., Sahbenderoglu, O., Dimitropoulos, K., Douka, S., & Grammalidis, N. (2019). An adaptive framework for the creation of exergames for intangible cultural heritage (ICH) education. Journal of Computers in Education, 6, 417-450.
  16. Kosner, A.W. (2012). Appification of everything. Forbes. g-will-turn-the-web-into-an-app-o-verse/
  17. Laamarti, F., Eid, M., & El Saddik, A. (2014). An overview of serious games. International Journal of Computer Games Technology.
  18. Lazarinis, F. (2012). Cultural data and semantic technologies: Teaching XML annotation through a guided problem-based learning approach. The Electronic Library, 30(5), 653-670.
  19. Lazarinis, F., Alexandri, K., Panagiotakopoulos, C., & Verykios, V. (2020). Sensitizing young children on internet addiction and online safety risks through storytelling in a mobile application. Educ Inf Technol, 25, 163-174.
  20. Lazarinis, F. (2011), Exploring the effectiveness of information searching tools on Greek museum websites. Museum Management and Curatorship, 26(4), 391-408.
  21. Luiro, E., Hannula, P., Launne, E., Mustonen, S., Westerlund, T. & H¨akkil¨a, J. (2019). Exploring local history and cultural heritage through a mobile game. MUM 19: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia, Article No., 42, 1-4.
  22. Malegiannaki, I. & Daradoumis, T. (2017). Analyzing the educational design, use and effect of spatial games for cultural heritage: A literature review. Computers & Education, 108, 1-10.
  23. Michael, D. R., & Chen, S. L. (2005). Serious games: Games that educate, train, and inform. Muska & Lipman/Premier-Trade.
  24. Moorhouse, N., tom Dieck, M. C., & Jung, T. (2017). Augmented reality to enhance the learning experience in cultural heritage Tourism: An experiential learning cycle perspective. eReview of Tourism Research, 8, 1-5.
  25. Mortara, M., Catalano, C. E., Bellotti, F., Fiucci, G., Houry-Panchetti, M., and Petridis, P. (2014). Learning cultural heritage by serious games. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 15(3), 318-325.
  26. Nicoll, B., & Keogh, B. (2019). The Unity game engine and the circuits of cultural software. In The Unity game engine and the circuits of cultural software, 1-21.
  27. Pantano, E., & Tavernise, A. (2009). Learning cultural heritage through information and communication technologies: A case study. International Journal of Information Communication Technologies and Human Development, 1(3), 68-87.
  28. Papadakis, S., Kalogiannakis, M., & Zaranis, N. (2021). Teaching mathematics with mobile devices and the Realistic Mathematical Education (RME) approach in kindergarten. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 1(1), 5-18.
  29. Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hern´andez, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., Millner, A., Rosenbaum, E., Silver, J., Silverman, B., & Kafai, Y. (2009). Scratch: programming for all. Communications of the ACM, 52(11), 60-67.
  30. Sakkopoulos, E., Paschou, M., Panagis, Y., Kanellopoulos, D., Eftaxias, G., & Tsakalidis, A. (2015). e-souvenir appification: QoS web based media delivery for museum apps. Electronic Commerce Research, 15(1), 5-24.
  31. Schaper, M. M., Santos, M., Malinverni, L., Zerbini, J., Pares, N. (2018). Learning about the past through situatedness, embodied exploration and digital augmentation of cultural heritage sites. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 114, 36-50.
  32. Tan, P., Ji, Y., Hills, D., & Fu, T. (2019). Bridging knowledge between craftsman and learner in Chinese intangible cultural heritage through WebAR. SIGGRAPH, 5, 1-5.
  33. Vlahakis, V., Karigiannis, J., Tsotros, M., Gounaris, M., Almeida, L., Gleue, T., Christou, I. T., Carlucci, R., & Ioannidis, N. (2001). Archeoguide: first results of an augmented reality, mobile computing system in cultural heritage sites. In Proceedings of the 2001 Conference on Virtual Reality, Archeology, and Cultural Heritage, 131-140.
  34. Vocaturo, E., Zumpano, E., Caroprese, L., Pagliuso, S. M. & Lappano, D. (2019). Educational games for cultural heritage. In Proceedings of 1st International Workshop on Visual Pattern Extraction and Recognition for Cultural Heritage Understanding, co-located with 15th Italian Research Conference on Digital Libraries (IRCDL 2019), CNR Area in Pisa, Italy, 95-106.