Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article

The use of ChatGPT as a learning tool to improve foreign language writing in a multilingual and multicultural classroom

Main Article Content

Stavros Athanassopoulos
Polyxeni Manoli
Maria Gouvi
Konstantinos Lavidas corresponding author
Vassilis Komis


The association of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and education has attracted researchers’ attention, as it is very beneficial for learners affecting the whole teaching procedure. ChatGPT, an AI language model developed by OpenAI and based on the Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPT)-3.5 architecture, though newly introduced in November 2022, became very popular even within the first two months. Researchers have already explored and acknowledged the affordances of ChatGPT for language learning and teaching. In this context, the study aimed to examine the effectiveness of ChatGPT as a feedback tool on foreign language writing, especially for socially vulnerable populations, such as refugees/migrants, who face extra language difficulties. The study was conducted in a Junior High School (Gymnasium) classroom in an urban city in south Greece, which consisted of 8 students with a migrant/refugee background aged 15 years old who were attending German as a foreign language learning. The focus of the study was to analyze how the use of ChatGPT could improve foreign language writing in terms of vocabulary and grammar. After the students' first writing attempt, we asked ChatGPT to enhance the vocabulary and grammar of the texts. In contrast, the students received an improved version in terms of language and grammar, and then, they were asked to produce another writing piece of work on a similar topic to their first attempt. The study results indicated an increase in the total number of words, the unique words and the average word number per sentence in the improved version of their work. Overall, the study results were promising, indicating that ChatGPT could act as a language learning tool and support the teaching procedure, especially for students with a refugee/migrant background. However, further research is needed to investigate its use and effectiveness in diverse contexts.

artificial intelligence, ChatGPT, foreign language learning, writing skills, language education for refugees/migrants

Article Details

How to Cite
Athanassopoulos, S., Manoli, P., Gouvi, M., Lavidas, K., & Komis, V. (2023). The use of ChatGPT as a learning tool to improve foreign language writing in a multilingual and multicultural classroom. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 3(2), 818-824.


  1. 6 Fields of AI. TechEmergent, 2023.
  2. Aljanabi, M. (2023). ChatGPT: Future Directions and Open Possibilities. Mesopotamian Journal of CyberSecurity, 2023, 16-17.
  3. Baskara, R., & Mukarto, M. (2023). Exploring the Implications of ChatGPT for Language Learning in Higher Education. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 343-358.
  4. Beacco, J. C., Krumm, H. J. & Little, D. (2017). Introduction. In J. C. Beacco, H. J. Krumm, D. Little, & P. Thalgott (Eds.), The linguistic integration of adult migrants. Some lessons from research (pp. 1-5). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter.
  5. Can, Y., & Bardakci, S. (2022). Teachers' opinions on (urgent) distance education activities during the pandemic. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 2(2), 351-374.
  6. Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2009). Multiliteracies: New literacies, new learning, Pedagogies: An International Journal, 4, 164–195.
  7. De La Cruz, E. M., Trujillo Meza, M. A., & Andrade-Arenas, L. (2023). Mobile application to improve the learning of secondary school students. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 3(1), 586-595.
  8. Dryden-Peterson, S. (2015). The educational experiences of refugee children in countries of first asylum. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
  9. Feng, Y., Qiang, J., Li, Y., Yuan, Y., & Zhu, Y. (2023). Sentence simplification via large language models. arXiv preprint, arXiv:2302.11957.
  10. Frieder, S., Pinchetti, L., Chevalier, A., Griffiths, R.-R., Salvatori, T., Lukasiewicz, T., Petersen, P. C., & Berner, J. (2023). Mathematical Capabilities of ChatGPT, arXiv:2301.13867.
  11. Hong, W. C. H. (2023). The impact of ChatGPT on foreign language teaching and learning: opportunities in education and research. Journal of Educational Technology and Innovation, 5(1), 37-45.
  12. Huang, W., Hew, K. F., & Fryer, L. K. (2022). Chatbots for language learning—Are they really useful? A systematic review of chatbot-supported language learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 38(1), 237-257.
  13. İpek, Z. H., GÖZÜM, A. İ. C., Papadakis, S., & Kallogiannakis, M. (2023). Educational Applications of the ChatGPT AI System: A Systematic Review Research. Educational Process: International Journal, 12(3), 26-55.
  14. Jiao, W., Wang, W., Huang, J., Wang, X., & Tu, Z. (2023). Is ChatGPT A Good Translator? Yes, With GPT-4 As The Engine, arXiv:2301.08745.
  15. Jurayev, T. N. (2023). The use of mobile learning applications in higher education institutes. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 3(1), 610-620.
  16. Kallou, S., & Kikilia, A. (2021). A transformative educational framework in tourism higher education through digital technologies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 1(1), 37-47.
  17. Kantzou, V., Manoli, P., Mouti, A., & Papadopoulou, M. (2017). Glwssikh ekpaideysh prosfygwn kai metanastwn: Pollaples meletes periptwshs ston Elladiko xwro [Language education for refugees and migrants: Multiple cases in Greece]. Dialogoi! Theoria kai Praxis tis Episthmes ths Agwghs kai Ekpaideushs, 3, 18-34.
  18. Karakose, T., Demirkol, M., Aslan, N., Köse, H., & Yirci, R. (2023). A Conversation with ChatGPT about the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Education: Comparative Review Based on Human–AI Collaboration. Educational Process: International Journal, 12(3), 7-25.
  19. Khalil, M., & Er, E. (2023). Will ChatGPT get you caught? Rethinking of plagiarism detection. arXiv preprint arXiv:2302.04335.
  20. Kim, H., Yang, H., Shin, D., & Lee, J. H. (2022). Design principles and architecture of a second language learning chatbot. Language Learning & Technology, 26(1): 1-18.
  21. Kim, S., Shim, J., & Shim, J. (2023). A Study on the Utilization of OpenAI ChatGPT as a Second Language Learning Tool. Journal of Multimedia Information System, 10(1), 79-88.
  22. Kohnke, L., Moorhouse, B. L., & Zou, D. (2023). ChatGPT for Language Teaching and Learning. RELC Journal, 00336882231162868.
  23. Krügel, S., Ostermaier, A., & Uhl, M. (2023). The moral authority of ChatGPT, arXiv:2301.07098.
  24. Lavidas, K., Papadakis, S., Filippidi, A., Karachristos, C., Misirli, A., Tzavara, A., Komis, V., & Karacapilidis, N. (2023). Predicting the Behavioral Intention of Greek University Faculty Members to Use Moodle. Sustainability, 15(7), 6290.
  25. Lavidas, K., Papadakis, S., Manesis, D., Grigoriadou, A. S., & Gialamas, V. (2022). The Effects of Social Desirability on Students’ Self-Reports in Two Social Contexts: Lectures vs. Lectures and Lab Classes. Information, 13(10), 491.
  26. McCarthy, J. (2007). What is artificial intelligence?
  27. Mitrović, S., Andreoletti, D., & Ayoub, O. (2023). Chatgpt or human? detect and explain. explaining decisions of machine learning model for detecting short chatgpt-generated text. arXiv preprint, arXiv:2301.13852.
  28. NapSaga. (2023). Chat GPT: Achieving 100 Million Users in Just 2 Months — A Deep Analysis. Medium.
  29. OpenAI. (2023). Retrieved August 4, 2023.
  30. Pardos, Z. A., & Bhandari, S. (2023). Learning gain differences between ChatGPT and human tutor generated algebra hints, arXiv:2302.06871.
  31. Sholekah, S., Suad, S., Madjdi, A. H., & Pratama, H. (2022). Influences of gadgets on students’ learning achievement for elementary school. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 3(1), 541-547.
  32. Sukmayasa, I. M. H., & Sudiana, I. N. (2023). The effect of the whole language approach on learning motivation and productive communication skills of students. Advances in Mobile Learning Educational Research, 3(1), 596-601.
  33. Turing, A. M. (1950). I.—Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Mind, 59(236), 433-460.
  34. What is Artificial Intelligence, and How Does AI Work? TechTarget. (n.d.). Enterprise AI. Retrieved August 4, 2023.
  35. What is Strong AI? IBM. (2023.). Retrieved August 4, 2023.
  36. Yan, D. (2023). Impact of ChatGPT on learners in an L2 writing practicum: An exploratory investigation. Education and Information Technologies, 1-25.
  37. Zhai, X. (2022). ChatGPT User Experience: Implications for Education. SSRN Electronic Journal, 4312418.